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35 Cards in this Set

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What is the principle of metabolism?
prokaryotes need to harvest energy from an external source and convert it into ATP.
Why do cells metabolize?
in order to grow and produce different cell parts and components
What is metabolism?
sum of chemical reactions that involve catabolic reactions and anabolic reactions.
What is the role of ATP?
Donor of free energy which is stored in high energy phosphate bonds. hydrolosis breaks bonds between phosphate groups and releases energy
How do catabolic reactions work?
they oxidize substrates slowly in order to release as much energy from ATP. they are exergonic
What do anabolic reactions do?
use energy to assemble and form cell structures (biosynthesis). its endergonic
What is the most important part of catabolism?
energy generation from substrates to creation of products.
What are the components of metabolic pathways?
substrates, intermediates, and end products.
What are the 3 types of pathways?
Linear, branched (glycolosis), and cyclical (Krebs)
What are enzymes?
proteins that act like biological catalysts. the speed up conversion of substrate to products. they are not consumed during reaction, they recover
How do enzymes work?
lower EA that is takes to break bonds. substrate binds on active site on surface of enzyme. enzyme substrate complex forms, AE is lowered, product released
What is competitive inhibition?
inhibitor has similiar chemical structure as the substrate.
What is an example of competitive inhibition?
sulfa drugs
How do sulfa drugs work?
they inhibit an enzyme in pathway of folic acid synthesis. compete with PABA in binding to active site. prevents growth of bacteria
Why do sulfa drugs work on bacteria and have no effect on humans?
We do not produce folic acid.
What do cofactors and coenzymes do?
occur in only small quantities. transport electrons b/w substrates
What are cofactors?
trace elements required for growth such as MG, Zn. only transfer electrons thru oxidation and reduction. always attach to enzymes near active site
What are coenzymes?
non-protein organic molecules that derive from vitamins. they include electron carriers.
What are NAD+ and FAD
reducing powers used to generate electron transport chain= proton motive force= generates ATP
What is the difference between oxidized and reduced form?
reduced forms contain H, FADH and NADH are the reducing powers
What are oxidation and reduction reactions?
harvesting energy that transfer 1 or more electrons from one substrate to another
What is the reducer?
Electron donor
What is the oxidant?
electrons acceptor
What is oxidationo accompanied by dehydrogenation?
removal of H+
What is reduction accompanied by hydrogenation?
gain of H+
Bacteria that ferment use what cycle?
glycolosis only, do not need 02
Bactera that respire use what cycle?
glycolosis and krebs cycle. require O2
What is glycolosis?
multi step breakdown of glucose into intermediates. generates small amount of ATP, and reducing power NADH.
What does glycolosis lack?
no electron transport chain or proton motive force
What is the kreb cycle?
used only by bacteria that respire. generates FADH2 and NADH, and large amount of ATP.
What are the final electron acceptors in fermentation?
pyruvate-lactic acid or pyruvate-acetaldehyde-ethanol
What is the MRVP test?
identifies E-Colie based on end product of fermentation of glucose.
Who uses fermentation?
obligate anaerobes
ex. clostridium, e-coli
What is aerobic respiration?
Pathway= glycolosis, TCA cycle (Kreb)
terminal E Acceptor= O2
ATP generated= 38
What is fermentation?
Pathway= glycolosis
terminal E acceptor= pyruvate
ATP generated= 2