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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The chance of something bad happening
Voluntary Risk
Risk that is deliberately assumed at an individual level
Involuntary Risk
Risk beyond one's control and not the result of a willful decision
Environmental Risk
Involuntary risk of exposure to an environmental hazard
Source of the environmental damage
Pathways between the source of the damage and the affected population or resource
Risk assessment
Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the risk posed to health or the ecology by an environmental hazard
Hazard Identification
Scientific analysis to determine whether a causal relationship exists between a pollutant and any adverse effects
-1st step of risk assessment
Dose-Response Relationship
A quantitative relationship between doses of a contaminant and the corresponding reactions
-2nd step in Risk Assessment
The level of exposure to a hazard up to which no response exists
Key Element in dose response relationship.
Exposure Analysis
Characterizes the sources of an environmental hazard, concentration levels at that point pathways, and any sensitivities
-3rd step in risk assessment
Risk Characterization
A description of risk based upon an assessment of a hazard and exposure to that hazard
Has 2 elements:Quantitative and Qualitative
Quantitative component of Risk Characterization
Quantitatively identifies the magnitude of the risk and a way to compare one risk to another
Can be measured using probabilities, some based on actuarial risks and some are inferred
Can be measured using a reference dose(RfD)
Qualitative Component of Risk Characterization
Qualitatively gives context to the numerical risk value
-Description of hazard
-Assessment of exposure and any susceptible groups
-Data used
-Scientific and statistical methods used
-Underlying assumptions
Also, identifies scientific uncertainties, data, gaps, measurement errors
Reference Dose(RfD)
Exposure to a hazard that can be tolerated over a lifetime without harm
-used to measure quantitative component of risk characterization
-measured by RfD=milligrams of a pollutant per body weight per day
Integrated Risk Information System(IRIS)
Made by EPA
-Repository of consensus views on health risks of environmental contaminants
-Available to general public
-Each summary includes:
Risk assessment table(quantitative measures)
-discussion of data used to form consensus
-reference listing of studies
Risk Assessment Process(4 Steps)
Preceeded by Scientific Research and Data Collection

-hazard Identification
-Dose response Analysis
-Exposure Analysis
-Risk Characterization

Followed by Risk Management
Risk Management
The decision-making process of evaluating and choosing from alternative responses to environmental risk
2 Major Tasks:
-Determining acceptable level of risk to society
-Selecting best policy to achieve that risk level
"Acceptable Risk"
Amount of risk determined to be tolerable for society
-Determining this is one task of risk management
de minimis risk
A negligible level of risk such that reducing it further would not justify the associated costs
-Concept sometimes used in risk management
Comparative Risk Analysis
An evaluation of relative risk

Ex) How risk of exposure to certain amount of radon compares to the risk of dying in car crash

Also known as risk-risk analysis when used to select from alternative policy instruments
Selecting Policy Response
(part of Risk Management)
-Evaluates alternative policies capable of achieving "acceptable" risk level
-Selects "best" option using risk management strategies
Risk management Strategies
Used to evaluate options in a systematic way
Key Considerations:
-The level of risk established
-Benefits to society from adopting the policy
-The associated costs of implementing the policy
3 commonly used Risk Management Strategies
-Comparative Risk analysis
-Risk-benefit analysis
-Benefit-cost analysis
Risk-benefit analysis
An assessment of risks of a hazard along with the benefits to society of not regulating that hazard
Benefit-cost analysis
A strategy that compares the MSB of a risk reduction policy to the associated MSC

Uses the economic criterion of allocative efficiency

Supported by presidential executive orders, starting with Pres. Reagan
3 Scientific methods to identify health hazards(Hazard Identification)
-Case Cluster
-Animal bioassay
Case Cluster
A study based on the observation of an abnormal pattern of health effects within some population group
Animal Bioassay
A study on the comparative results of laboratory experiments on living organisms both before and after exposure to a given hazard
The study of the causes and distribution of disease in human populations based on characteristics such as age, gender, occupation, and economic status