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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms
breeding of two organisms
offspring of a cross
segnemt of DNA containing information for a trait
pairs of gnes at same location on homologous chormosones which govern the same trait
A gene that is expressed phenotypically in heterozygous or homozygous individuals
independent assortment
allesles located on different chromosones are inherited independently of one another
P, F1, F2, etc.
P=parental generation
F1=first generation
f2=second generation
to mask a normal function
same alleles
different alleles
genes are symbolized by letters
actual appearance of a trait
Dihybrid Cross
where there are two genes involved in determining two different traits but in one organism
Multiple Alleles
still only carries two alleles, but there are more than two for that particular trait in the population
Multiple Genes
occurs when a triat is determined by 2 or more gene pairs acting together additively
Punnet Square
used to solve genetic crosses involving single gene pair
single trait inheritance
A gene that is phenotypically expressed in the homozygous state but has its expression masked in the presence of a dominant gene
when one allele for a certain trait is not dominant to the other
Sex Linkage
gene for chomosone in x chromosone
Test Cross
mating between an individual with the dominant phenotype and a homozygous recessive individual
Gregor Mendel
father genetics; law of segregation (one member of homologous pair in each gamete); Law of independent assortment (more than 1 pair of chromosones that work independently
DNA that contains information for various traits and inheritance
traits whose genes are not carried on sex chromosones
Sex Chromomsone
where contained DNA contains the inheritance information for gender
Down's Syndrom
Trisomy Chromosone 21
Joseph Kolreuter
believed both parents contribute equally to offspring; 1st to artifically pollinate plants/cross polination
investigation of human genetics by studying inheritance in families
when after synapsis, the homologous chormosones do not split and one daughter cell recieves two chromosones and the other none
Barr Bodies
inactive x chromosoneq
Turner's Syndrome
Monosomy of x chromosone (XO); sterilty, poor breast development, broad chest
Klienfelter’s Syndrome
trisomy of sex chromosones (XXY); underdeveloped testes, breast development, sub normal intelligence
Cystic Fibrosis
results in abnormally thick mucus that prevents secretion of digestive enzymes and contributes to lung infections
inablity to synthesize pigment in skin and hair
Law of Segregation
1 member of homologous pair goes into gamete
Law of Independent Assortment
more than 1 pair of chromosones that work independently
Walter Sutton
Proposed Theory of Inheritance, decided chromosones are teh cellular carriers of heredity
Theodor Boveri
Believed gametes have 1/2 the usual number of chromosones, chromosones involved in heredity
Murray Barr
discovered barr bodies
Walter Flemming
coined term chromotin; discovered/named steps of mitosis
Mendel Rediscovered by
Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, Erich von Tschermark
Theory of Inheritance
1. chromosone # is constant for each specie 2. chormosones occur in pairs 3. Chromosones appear to be duplicated during mitosis 4. Daughter cells have same # of chromosones after mitosis 5. Daughter cells have 1/2 # of chromosones after mieosis 6. Each parent contributes equally to offspring
William Bateson
coined term genetics
R.C. Punnet
brought Punnet square
Alfred H. Sturtevant
Genetic Markers; genetic maps
Genetic Maps
show location of genes on individual chromosones
Genetic Locus
Each gene is designated by a particular address
Herman J Miller
x rays induce mutations, mutated genes yield abnormal chromosones and they yield abnormal developments
Geneitc markers
groups of genes that cross over together because they are closely linked on one chromosone
showed that sex is determined by the X and Y chromosone
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Lexington' "fly lab" at Columbia University; specific gene are carried on the sex chromosone