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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
parasympathetic
activities that gain and conserve E, "rest and digest," opposite to sympathetic
afferent neurons
neurons that move information form PNS to CNS
autonomic nervous system
involuntary, automatic functions, smooth and cardiac muscles
Axon formation in the medulla
cross from one side of the CNS to the other. Right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, and vice versa
Blood-brain barrier
formed by tight junctions between capillaries in the brain; restricts the passage of most substances into the CNS (type of glia)
brain stem parts
medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
cephalization
neurons clustered in a brain
cerebellum
controls balance and coordination or movement, learning and remembering motor responses
cerebral cortex
outer part of cerebrum, voluntary movement and cognitive functions. 2 hemispheres (R&L), each with 4 lobes
cerebrospinal fluid
formed in the brain by filtration of blood, in central canal and ventricles of the brain. Supplies nutrients, hormones, carries away wastes. In mammals, cushions the brain and spinal chord
cerebrum
information processing, formulates complex behavioral responses
cnidarians
nerve net
CNS
brain and spinal cord, very highly coordinated, derived from dorsal nerve cord in the embryo
corpus callosum
nerves that connect the 2 cerebral cortex halves to communicate between hemispheres
echinoderms
nerves
efferent neurons
neurons that transmit instructions from CNS to PNS
enteric
digestive tract, pancreas, gall bladder; normally is regulated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems
epilepsy
impaired communication between hemispheres of cerebral cortex
frontal lobe
motor coordination, speech
Functions of brain stem
maintains homeostasis, coordination of movement, info transmission to and from higher brain regions
ganglia
clusters of neurons
glial cells
several kinds, assist neurons
gray matter
unmyelinated axons, cell bodies, and dendrites (parts of the nerve cells that receive information. Outside of brain, inside of spinal cord
hypothalamus
very important for homeostasis (see list on the outline)
limbic system
emotions, feelings, emotional bonding, and extended nurturing of infants. group of structures surrounding brainstem in mammals
motor division
carries signals form CNS to effector cells
neocortex
outer region of the cerebral cortex in humans, consists of layers of neurons, highly convoluted (form fits function)
nerve net
interconnected nerve cells
nerves
multiple nerve cells bundled together
occipital lobe
vision
pallium
in birds, similar to human cerebral cortex for memory and flying
parietal lobe
sensory, speech, taste, reading
PNS
network of nerves extending into different parts of the body, carry sensory input into CNS and motor input away from CNS
predators or fast-moving animals
more complex nervous systems
reflexes
rapid, involuntary response in which spinal cord acts independently of the brain
reticular formation
filters info coming from neurons, sends info to cerebral cortex. Deals with sleep and alertness, the more info=more arousal
sensory division
brings info from sensory receptors to CNS
sessile or slow-moving animals
relatively simple sense organs, little or no cephalization
simplest CNS
planarians
somatic (motor) nervous system
skeletal muscles, involuntary reflexes
specific brain stem functions
control visceral functions including breathing, heart and blood vessel circulation, swallowing, vomiting, digestion, sleep, and arousal; coordinate large-scale body movements such as walking, running, climbing
sponges
no nervous system
sympathetic
increases E expenditures, "fight or flight," opposite to parasympathetic
temporal lobe
hearing, smell
thalamus
input sensor for sensory info going to cerebrum, integrating center, output center for motor responses leaving the cerebrum
vertebrate parts of nervous system
central and peripheral
white matter
in the brain, myelinated axons. Inside of the brain, outside of the spinal cord (signals between neurons of the brain; links CNS to sensory and motor neurons of the PNS)
diencephalon
part of the forebrain, just in front of the midbrain; contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and posterior lobe of the pituitary
hippocampus
inner area of cerebrum vital to short term memory formation
telencephalon
anterior part of the forebrain; part of forebrain which contains the cerebrum and olfactory bulbs
learning
changes in the nervous system (and its responses) as a result of experience