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47 Cards in this Set

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What are the major animal phyla with gastrovascular cavities? Why don't these organisms need a circulatory system?
Cnidarians and Planarians. They do not need a circulatory system b/c of their simple body plan.
Distinguish between an open and closed circulatory system.
In an open circulatory system, the blood bathes the organs directly.
In a closed circulatory system, blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstital fluid.
Using an arthropod as an example, describe the circulation of hemolymph.
When the heart contracts, it pumps hemolymph through vessels out into sinuses. When the heart relaxes, it draws hemolymph into the circulatory system pores called ostia.
Explain how hemolymph differs from mammalian blood.
Hemolymph differs to mammalian blood in that there is no distinction between blood and interstital fluid.
Humans & other vertebrates have a closed circulatory system often called what?
Cardiovascular system
The vertebrate heart has 1 or 2 atria(atrium), what is the atrium?
The atria are chambers that recieve blood returning to the heart.
The vertebrate heart also has 1 or 2 ventricles, which are what?
The ventricles are the chambers that pump blood out of the heart.
What are the 3 main kinds of blood vessels? What do they do?
1)Arteries-carry blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body.
2)Arterioles-within organs, arteries branch into these small vessels that convey blood to the capillaries.
3)Capillaries-microscopic vessels with very thin, porous walls.
What carries blood from the heart toward capillaries?
What returns blood to the heart from capillaries?
What is an important factor in the evolution of cardiovascular systems?
Metabolic rate
What difference does an animal with a higher metabolic rate have with one with a lower metabolic rate.
Animals with a higher metabolic rate have more complex circulatory systems and more powerful hearts.
What is it called when blood is pumped from the ventricle and travels firts to the gills?
Gill circulation
What is it called when the gill capillaries converge into a vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood to capillary beds throughout all other parts of the body?
Systemic circulation
What Circuit leads to capillaries in the gas exchange organs(the lungs & skin in a frog)?
Pulmocutaneous circuit
Where is most of the returning oxygen-rich blood pumped into?
Systenuc circuit
What provides a vigorous flow of blood to the brain, muscles,& other organs b/c the blood is pumped a second time after it loses pressure in the capillary beds of the lungs or skin.
Double circulation
Reptiles have double circulation with what 2 circuits?
Pulmonary & systemic
True or False
In all mammals and birds, the ventricle is completely divided into seperate right and left chambers.
Mammals & birds have how many chambers in their heart?
Which side of the mammal & bird hearts receives and pumps only oxygen-rich blood?
The left side.
What does the right side of the mammal & bird heart recieve and pump?
Oxygen-poor blood
Compare & contrast the circulatory systems of fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, & birds.
Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, mammals, & birds all have a systemic circuit, atrium, & ventricle.
Fishes are the only ones that have a 2 chambered heart, 1 atrium, & a single circuit of blood flow.
Amphibians are the only ones that have the pulmocutaneous circuit.
Reptiles are the only ones that have a right systemic aorta, and the ventricle partially divided by a septum.
Mammals & birds are the only ones that that ventricle is completely divided into seperate right & left chambers.
Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circuits, explain the function of each, & describe the advantages of double circulation over a single circuit.
A pulmonary circuit is where double circulation is done in reptiles. Returning oxygen-rich blood is pumped into the systemic circuit.
Double circulation has an advantage over a single circuit in that it has a more vigorous flow of blood to the brain, muscles, & other organs.
What is the first step with the pulmonary circuit?
The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs through the capillary beds in the left & right lungs via pulmonary arteries.
What is the next step after the blood has been pumped through the lumgs?
Oxygen-rich blood returns from the lungs via pulmonary veins to the left atrium of the heart.
What is the next step after the oxygen-rich blood enters the left atrium of the heart?
The oxygen-rich blood flows into the left ventricle as the ventricle opens and the atrium contracts.The left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood out through the aorta to body tissues through the systemic circuit.
What is the next step after the blood flows through the capillaries of the limbs & organs?
Oxygen-poor blood from the head,neck,& forelimbs is channeled into a large vein called the anterior vena cava.
Another large vein called the posterior vena cava drains blood from the trunk and hind limbs.
What is the next step after the oxygen-poor blood flows through the anterior & posterior vena cava?
The 2 venae cavae empty their blood into the right atrium, from which the oxygen-poor blood flows into the right ventricle.
What is the cardiac cycle? How is it controlled?
One complete sequence of pumping and filling.The heart contracts(systole)and relaxes(diastole)in a rhythmic cycle. When it contracts, it pumps blood; when it relaxes, its chambers fill with blood.
Describe the composition of mammalian lymph.
The composition of lymph is about the same as that of interstitial fluid.
How does the lymphatic system help the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.
The lymphatic system helps the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system by defending against infection, maintaining the volume of protein concentration in the blood, & transports fats from the digestive tract to the circulatory system.
How does the lymphatic system help defend the body against infection?
The lymphatic system has organs called lymph nodes that filter the lymph and attack viruses & bacteria.
List the components of mammalian blood.
1)Nutrients(glucose,fatty acids,vitamins)
2)Metabolic wastes
3)Respiratory gases(O2&CO2)&
Plasma's substances
What is not very permeable to proteins?
Capillary walls
What are the 3 cellular elements? What are their functions?
1)Erythrocytes(red blood cells)-transport oxygen,lack mitochondria,nuclei,& generate their own ATP by anaerobic metabolism.
2)Leukocytes(white blood cells)-fight infections
3)Platelets-fragments of cells in the bone marrow that are involved in the process of blood clotting after entering the blood.
Leukocytes:monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils,& lymphocytes.
What are low-density lipoproteins(LDLs)?
Growths that develop on the inner walls of arteries.
"Bad cholesterol"
What are high-density lipoproteins(HDLs)?
Appears to reduce the deposition of cholesterol.
"Good cholesterol"
What is the cardiovascular disease that can cause plaque to form and narrows arteries?
What does hypertension promote?
Promotes Atherosclerosis and increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
"high blood pressure"
What is a heart attack?
What are the factors that increase the risk of suffering from a heart attack?
A heart attack is the death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from prolonged blockage of one or more coronary arteries, the vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
Factors that increase the risk of suffering from a heart attack is physical or emotional stress.
What is a stroke?
What are the factors that increase the risk of suffering from a stroke?
A stroke is the death of nervous tissue in the brain, usually resulting from rupture or blockage of arteries in the head.
Factors that increase the risck of suffering from a stroke is physical or emotional stress.
What is the part of an animal's body where gases are exchanged with the surrounding environment?
Respiratory surface
What are the general requiremnets for a respiratory surface? List the variety of respiratory organs adapted for this purpose.
Respiratory surfaces tend to be thin and have a large surface area & all living cells must be bathed in water to maintain their plasma membranes.
tracheae &
Describe the respitory adaptations of aquatic animals and why counter current exchange is an efficient process for gas exchange in an aquatic medium.
Respitory adaptations of aquatic animals are gills and ventilation.
Counter current exchange is an efficient process b/c along the entire length of the capillary, there is a diffusion gradient favoring the transfer of O2 from water to blood. This way the gills are able to remove more than 80% of the O2 dissolved in the water passin over the respitory surface.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of air as a respiratory medium.
Advantages-higher concentration of oxygen& less energy is needed.
Disadvantages-the respiratory surface continuously loses water to the air by evaporation.
Explain how insects $ terrestrial vertebrates are adapted to deal with the disadvantages of air as a respiratory medium.
Insects have a tracheal system and terrestrial vertebrates have lungs.