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8 Cards in this Set

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Distinguish between herbivores, carnivores, & omnivores.
1)Herbivores-eat autotrophs such as plants & algae.
2)Carnivores-eat other animals.
3)Omnivores-consume animals as well as plant or algal matter.
Describe the following feeding mechanisms & give examples of animals that use each:filter-feeding, substrate feeding, deposite-feeding, & fluid feeding.
1)Filter feeding-sift small food particles from the water(humpback whale).
2)Substrate feeding-animals that live in or on their food source, eating their way through the food(caterpillar).
3)Deposite feeding-animals which eat relatively large pieces of food(snakes).
4)Fluid feeding-sucks nutrientrich fluid from a living host(mosquitos).
Filter feeding is also known as a suspension feeder.
Deposite feeding is also known as bulk feeding.
Define digestion & describe why it is a necessary process.
Digestion is the second stage of food processing;breaking food down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.Digestion is a necessary process b/c it breaks down food to be able to pass through membranes & enter the cells of the animal.
Distinguish between intracellular & extracellular digestion.
1)Intracellular-digestion with in the cell.
2)Extracellular-the breakdown of food outside cells.
Explain why intracellular digestion must be sequestered in a food vacuole & give examples of organisms which digest their food in vacuoles.
Intracellular digestion must be seperated in a food vacuole so that there isn't a chance of self-digestion. Sponges digest their food entirely by the intracellular mechanism.
Define gastrovascular cavity, describe how it functions in both digestion & distribution of nutrients, & explain why extracellular digestive cavities are advantageous.
Gastrovascular cavity-digestive sac w/ a single opening. The Gastrovascular cavity functions in digestion by specialized gland cells of the gastrodermis secreteing digestive enzymes which breaks down the soft tissue of the prey. It also functions in distribution of nutrients by the nutrients being absorbed through the small intestine.Having a extracellular digestive cavity enables an animal to devour much larger prey than can be ingested by intracellular digestion.
Describe some distinct advantages that complete digestive tracts have over gastrovascular cavities.
A complete digestive tract is able to ingest additional food before earlier meals are completely digested-which may be difficult or inefficient for animals whith gastrovascular cavities.
Complete digestive tract has a digestive tube that extends b/w 2 openings.
Gastrovascular cavities have a digestive pouch and 1 opening(mouth/anus).
Define peristalsis and describe its role in the digestive tract.
Peristalsis-rhythmic waves of contraction by smooth muscles in the wall of the canal.Its role is to push the food along the tract.