Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/56

Click to flip

56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
autotroph
make their own food
heterotroph
dependent on a regular supply of food
herbivore
eat plants
carnivore
eat meat
omnivore
eat both plants and meat
adequate diet:
Fuel for all cellular work, Organic raw materials for biosynthesis (carbon skeletons), Essential nutrients, substances that the animal cannot make for itself
suspension feeders
sift small food particles from the water
substrate feeder
live in or on their food source
deposit feeders
salvage partially decayed organic material consumed along with soil
fluid feeders
suck nutrient-rich fluids from a living host
excess calories
glycogen in the liver and muscles, and as fat
undernourishment
calorie deficient
apetite
regulated by hormones that affect the "satiety center" in the brain
malnourishment
nutrient deficient
amino acids
Animals require 20 amino acids and can synthesize about half from molecules in diet; remaining essential amino acids must be obtained from food in preassembled form
malnutrition
protein deficiency
essential fatty acids
Animals can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need. essential fatty acids are certain unsaturated fatty acids
vitamins
organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts (13 essentials)
water soluble vitamins
B1, B2, niacin, B6, pantothenic acid, folic acid, B12, biotin, and vitamin c
fat soluble vitamins
vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K
minerals
simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts
digestive compartments
reduce risk of self digestion
intracellular digestion
food particles are engulfed by endocytosis and digested within food vacuoles
extracellular digestion
breakdown of food particle outside of cell
gastrovascular cavity
animals with simple body plans use this for both digestion and distribution of nutrients
alimentary canal
2 openings, step-wise digestion
accessory glands
pancreas, gallbladder, liver, and salivary glands
enzymatic hydrolysis
breaking bonds with enzymatic addition of water to break down food
salivary amylase
hydrolyzes starch and glycogen
pharynx
throat--leads to esophagus and wind pipe
epiglottis/glottis
glottis=windpipe/ epiglottis=covers it when food is being swallowed
esophagus
moves food from pharynx to stomach
gastric juice
secreted by stomach, kills bacteria and dissolves extracellular matrix of meat. made of hydrochloric acid and pepsin
pepsin
begins hydrolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides
pepsinogen
specialized cells in gastric pits that synthesize and secrete pepsin in an inactive form. activated by hydrocholoric acid
acid chyme
nutrient broth that began as food
pyloric sphincter
opening of stomach to small intestine, regulates passage of chyme
duedenum
place where small intestine is connected to gall bladder, liver and pancreas. chyme mixes with digestive juices from glands
proteases: trypsin, chymortrypsin
protein digesting enzymes made from pancreas
amalayze 2
polysaccharides into smaller polys and maltose
pancreatic amylase
polysacc to maltose and other dissachs
disaccharidases
dissachs to monosachs
aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase
smaller polypeptides into amino acids
dipeptidase
small peptides into amino acids
nucleases
dna/rna into nucleotides
bile salts
fat globules into fat droplets
lipase
fat droplets into glycerol, fatty acids, glycerides
nucleotidases
nucleosides into nitrogenous bases, sugars and phosphates
cardiac orifice
opening of esophagus to stomach
trachea
windpipe
ulcers
lesions in the lining caused by helicobacter pylori
villus
each has a network of blood vessels and a small lymphatic vessel called a lacteal
chylomicrons
After glycerol and fatty acids are absorbed by epithelial cells, they are recombined into fats within these cells and mixed with cholesterol and coated with protein. there molecules are transported into lacteals
large intestine (colon)
recover water. houses e. coli which produces some vitamins
fermentation chambers
symbiotic microorganisms digest cellulose
ruminants
have a stomach with four complete cavities (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum), through which the food passes in digestion. chew cud of partially digested material