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67 Cards in this Set

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An approach that emphasized learning from reward and punishment as the main cause of behavior, and that dominated psychology in the 1950s and 1960s
Skinnerian behaviorism
Skinnerian behaviorism, however, failed to provide a satisfactory account of human behavior, precisely because of its failure to deal with____
meaning
In decision making, the greater weight given to possible losses than possible gains
RISK AVERSION
In decision making, the greater weight given to the present over the future
TEMPORAL DISCOUNTING
In decision making, the greater weight given to definite outcomes than to probabilities
CERTAINTY EFFECT
What are the "two steps of choosing?"
1.) Whittling the choices down to a limited few. 2.) More careful comparison of the highlighted options.
Researchers found that people were often rational, but when they were not, their irrational Behavior was geared toward______
avoiding losses
The idea that both men and women seek to minimize the most costly type of error, but that men's and women's goals, and hence worst errors, differ
ERROR MANAGEMENT THEORY
The preference to keep things the way they are rather than change
Status Quo Bias
The tendency to take whatever course of action does not require you to do anything (also called the default option)
OMISSION BIAS
Postponing decisions may be part of a broader pattern called________ __________
Decision avoidance
One general theme behind decision avoidance is
anticipated regret
Another theme (as to why people don't choose) is that some decisions
become too difficult
The idea that people are distressed by loss of freedom or options and seek . To reclaim or reassert them
REACTANCETHEORY
Reactance produces what three main consequences?
1.) Makes you want forbidden option more. 2.) Makes you take steps to reclaim the lost option. 3.) Agression towards the person who has restricted your freedom.
Those who believe that traits are fixed, stable things (entities) and thus people should not be expected to change
ENTITY THEORISTS
Those who believe that traits are subject to change and improvement.
INCREMENTAL THEORISTS
Belief that one's actions will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one to give up and quit trying .
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
The theory that people need to feel at least some degree of autonomy and internal motivation
SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY
A reduction in stress or suffering due to a belief that one has the option of escaping or controlling the situation, even if one doesn't exercise it
PANIC BUTTON EFFECT
An action is _____ to the extent that it is connected to other things or events.
meaningful
______ are the (meaningful) link between values and action.
Goals
An idea of some desired future state
Goals
A tendency to experience automatic, intrusive thoughts about a goal whose pursuit has been interrupted
ZEIGARNIK EFFECT
When the activation of a focal goal the person is working on inhibits the accessibility of alternative goals
GOAL SHIELDING
Goal shielding seems to occur _______
Naturally
The tendency for plans to be overly optimistic because the planner fails to allow for unexpected problems
PLANNING FALLACY
The self's capacity to alter its own responses; self-control
SELF-REGULATION
People who make ________ are more likely to take steps toward their goals than people who__________
specific plans; fail to make plans
What are the two main drawbacks to plans?
1.) If they are too detailed or rigid, they can be discouraging. 2.) They tend to be overly optimistic.
People who plan ____ do better with their plans.
Monthly
Keeping track of behaviors or responses to be regulated
MONITORING
TOTE the self-regulation feedback loop of__ __ __ __
Test, Operate, Test, Exit
People who are good at _____________are more likely to be successful in work, school, relationships, and other important spheres of behavior (Baumeis
self-control or self-regulation
Effective self-regulation has three main components:
standards, monitoring, and strength
Refers to concepts (ideas) of how things might or should be.
standards
Keeping track of the behaviors or responses you want to regulate
monitoring
The way people monitor themselves is typically summarized as a feedback loop (acronym)
TOTE, which stands for Test, Operate, Test, and Exit
The first "T" of TOTE is a comparison of self against the standard.
Test
The "O" in Tote is the phase, in which you exert conscious control to change yourself to become nicer.
Operate
The active phase of self-regulation; willpower
CAPACITY FOR CHANGE
Any action by which people bring failure, suffering, or misfortune on themselves
SELF-DEFEATING BEHAVIOR
The two main reasons for self-defeating behavior
1.) Tradeoffs 2.) Faulty knowledge and strategies
Suicide often involves a _____
Tradeoff
Suicide starts with a _____
discrepancy between expectation and reality.
Suicide rates are often higher in ____ circumstances.
Favorable.
The ability to make immediate sacrifices for later rewards
CAPACITY TO DELAY GRATIFICATION
_____________ is high among suicidal people;
Self-awareness
Suicidal people tend to be ____________
emotionally numb.
One emphasis (for helping suicidal people) should be to help that person refocus on________________
long-term goals
Suppose you show up for a paid experiment and receive $10. The researcher says you can double· your earnings if the outcome of a coin toss is a head, or lose your earnings if the outcome of a coin toss is a tail. Research shows that most people would________
not flip the coin and keep their $10
Mohammed is 4 years old. His mother, a social . Psychologist, asks whether he would rather have one cookie today or three cookies tomorrow. Mohammed chooses the one cookie today. This illustrates _,
temporal discounting
Entity theorists are to incremental theorists as _____ are to_________.
stable traits; unstable traits
People who believe in free will are more _ _______thanpeople who do not believe in free will.
prosacial
According to self-determination theory, people need to feel that activities are motivated by ___________
internal factors
Believing that one can exert control over stressful events makes them more tolerable, even if one has no control. This is called the _'
panic button effect
Goals are the meaningful link between_______,
values and actions
Fatima seems obsessed with achieving the goal she is working toward. She can't seem to focus on anything else, even other goals. This is called ________
goal shielding
Claudia is waiting in line to see a movie on the first day it is released. Just as she gets close to the ticket booth, the person in the booth announces that the movie is sold out. Rather than wait in line for the next show, Claudia leaves, but she spends the rest of the day thinking about the movie. This illustrates ________
the Zeigarnik effect .
People are often overly optimistic about what they can accomplish. This is called the _________
planning fallacy
Self-regulation is most similar to which of the following concepts?
Self-control
Which of the following refers to a concept or idea of how things could be?
Standards
Which common household device best illustrates a feedback loop?
Thermostat
What body part does willpower most resemble?
Muscle
In everyday terms, self-defeating behavior is defined as _ behavior.
stupid
The two main reasons for self-defeating behavior are___________
faulty knowledge; tradeoffs
Suicidal people are __________
high in self-awareness