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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was the punishment contingency for the girls with bruxism?
Before: She has no ice cube on her face.
Behavior: She grinds her teeth
After: She has an ice cube on her face.
Punishment Contingency
-the immediate
-response contingent
-presentation of
-an aversive condition
-resulting in a decreased frequency of that response
Punishment Principle
a response becomes less frequent if an aversive condition or an increase in an aversive condition has immediately followed it in the past
What do we tend to do with aversive conditions?
Minimize contact with them
What was the punishment contingency for Sandra, the girl with the cleft palate who regurgitated her food?
Before: She has no sour lemon juice in her mouth.
Behavior: She starts vigorous tongue movements.
After: She has sour lemon juice in her mouth.
What was the punishment contingency for Jack, the head banger?
Before: Jack has no shock.
Behavior: Jack bangs his head.
After: Jack has a shock.
What are some reinforcers for harmful behavior?
-escape from an aversive condition
-contingent presentation of attention
What was the punishment contingency for Ange, the girl who sneezed constantly?
Before: She has no shock.
Behavior: She sneezes.
After: She has a shock.

They had a microphone around her neck that would pick up her sneezing and trigger a shock.
What is Escape?
Reinforcement by the removal of an aversive condition.
What is an example of escape?
Unzipping your jeans after eating too much to stop them from pinching you.
What is Punishment?
Punishment by the presentation of an aversive condition.
What is an example of punishment?
Trying to put on your jeans after pigging out, but they're too tight.
What were the two approaches used to increase David's on task behavior?
-Visual screening
-Gentle teaching
-teaching quietly
What is visual screening?
Each time David did a stereotyped behavior, the trainer would cover David's eyes with one hand and hold the back of his head with the other hand for about 5 seconds
What is gentle teaching?
Does not include punishment.
What is teaching quietly?
Uses almost no vocal instructions, only gestures and signals;

the only vocalization is praise
Which method worked the best?
Visual screening
What was the punishment contingency for visual screening?
Before: David's eyes are not covered
Behavior: David self-stimulates (does a stereotyped, not on task behavior)
After: David's eyes are covered
How did Sid and Dawn get rid of their bad habits?
Baseline: they carried around 3X5 cards and marked down instances when they did the habit

Intervention: each time they did the unwanted behavior, they clenched their fist for 3 minutes
What was the punishment contingency for the undesirable habitual behavior?
Before: Sid doesn't have to clench his fist
Behavior: Sid rubs his eye
After: Sid has to clench his fist
What was the inappropriate natural reinforcement contingency with Byron and his sleeping with his parents?
Before: Byron is not with his parents.
Behavior: Byron gets into bed with his parents.
After: Byron is with his parents.
What was the performance management punishment contingency?
Before: Byron has a comfortable bed.
Behavior: Byron gets into bed with his parents
After: Byron has an uncomfortable bed
What was the punishment for Peter, who was violent towards others in school?
Contingent exercise

Before: Peter doesn't have to sit and stand 10 times.
Behavior: Peter is violent towards someone.
After: Peter has to sit and stand 10 times.
What was the punishment for Ann, who would trash her ward?
Restitutional overcorrection:

the staff made her clean everything she had trashed, plus clean the dining room, and apologize to the people whose furniture she had overturned
What was Ann's punishment contingnecy?
Before: Ann needn't do effortful overcorrection
Behavior: Ann trashes the ward.
After: Ann must do effortful overcorrection
What is overcorrection?
-a contingency
-on appropriate behavior
-requiring the person
-to engage in an effortful response
-that more than corrects
-the effects of the inappropriate behavior
What are aversive outcomes other than shock?
-effort of clenching a fist
-contingent exercise
-ice cube
-lemon juice
-visual screening
What was Sue's escape contingency with Jimmy?
Before: Sue asks Jimmy to do a tough task
Behavior: Jimmy disrupts
After: Sue does not ask Jimmy to do a tough task
What was Jimmy's punishment contingency with Sue?
Before: Jimmy does not disrupt.
Behavior: Sue asks Jimmy to do a tough task
After: Jimmy disrupts
What is the sick social cycle?
-The perpetrator's aversive behavior punishes
-the victim's appropriate behavior.
-And the victim's stopping the appropriate behavior
-unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior
Why do you need to have a reinforcement contingency whenever you have a punishment contingency?
For punishment to occur, you need behavior.
For behavior to occur reliably, it must be reinforced.
Why are there circumstances under which a small reinforcer will maintain a response, in spite of an intense physical stressor contingent on each response?
We will tolerate much physical stress when the intensity of the physical stress increases gradually.
What are points to consider when considering electric shock in a punishment contingency?
-do the benefits outweigh the costs? (including the cost of searching for a less drastic procedure)
-are you using the least aversive and the least drastic, the least restrictive, and the least intrusive intervention?
What are guidelines for punishment
-the person's behavior must be dangerous to himself or herself or to others
-the person probably will benefit from the intervention
-solid data suggest that less drastic or less intrusive interventions will not work
-use reinforcement to establish appropriate behavior, and use punishment to get rid of inappropriate behavior
-a well-trained, professional behavior analyst must design and supervise the procedure
-a clients' rights committee must approve the procedure
How can you avoid confusing punishment and aggression?
-don't use punishment in wrath

-don't confuse the behavioral use of punishment with divine retribution

-forget the eye-for-an-eye notion
What are some research methods?
-dependent variable and independent variable


-multiple-baseline designs
What is an independent variable?
-the variable the experimenter systematically manipulates
-to influence the dependent variable
What is the dependent variable?
a measure of the subject's behavior
What is a multiple-baseline design?
-an experimental design
-in which the replications involve
-baselines of differing durations
-and interventions of differing starting times
Reliability measurements
-The comparison of measurements
-of dependent variables and
-independent variables
-obtained by independent observers
Informed consent
-consent to intervene in a way
-that is experimental or
-The participant or guardian
-is informed of the risks and benefits
-and of the right to stop the intervention
Social validity
-The goals,
-procedures, and
-results of an intervention
-are socially acceptable to
-the client,
-the behavior analyst, and