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49 Cards in this Set

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What contributes to the diversity of organic molecules?
Variation in Carbon Skeletons.
What organic molecules consist only of carbon and hydrogen covalently bonded?
Hydrocarbons
What type of bonds do Hydrocarbons have?
Covalent Bonds
What is a compounds that has the same molecular formula but is not structurally the same, resulting in different properties?
Isomer
List the 3 types of Isomers.
Structural Isomer
Geometric Isomer
Enantiomers
What compound has the same molecular structure but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms, and also differ in the location of double bonds.
Structural Isomer
What compounds have the same molecular formula and covalent partnerships, but differ in their spatial arrangments?
Geometric Isomer
Draw an example of a Structural Isomer
Structural Isomer
Draw an example of a Geometric Isomer.
See p.56 Geometric Isomer
What kind of isomer is inflexible due to its double bonds?
Geometric Isomer
What compounds have the same molecular formula but are mirror images of each other.
Enantiomer
What contributes to the molecular diversity of life?
Functional Groups
These components of organic molecules are most commonly involved in chemical reactions.
Functional Group
What is the simplest organic molecule?
Hydrocarbon
Are functional groups hydrophobic or hydrophilic, and what does this mean?
Hydrophilic - increases the solubility of organic compounds in water.
List the 6 Functional Groups of organic compounds.
Hydroxyl
Carbonyl
Carboxyl
Amino
Sulfhydryl
Phosphate
What group has a H atom bonded to an O atom, all bonded to the Carbon Skeleton of an organic molecule?
Hydroxyl Group
What group has a C atom joined to a O atom by a double bond?
Carbonyl Group
What group has an O atom double-bonded to a C atom that is also bonded to a Hydroxyl group?
Carboxyl group
What group has a N atom bonded to 2 H atoms and to the Carbon Skeleton of an organic molecule?
Amino group
What group has a S atom bonded to H atom, all bonded to the Carbon Skeleton of an organic molecule?
Sulfhydryl group
What group has an O atom of a phosphate ion bonded to the Carbon Skeleton of an organic molecule?
Phosphate group
What is the name of the organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups?
Alcohols

Names usually end in -ol
What is the name of the organic compounds containing carbonyl groups?
Aldehydes ans Ketones
What is the simplest Ketone?
Acetone
What is the name of the organic compounds containing carboxyl groups?
Carboxylic Acids or Organic Acids
What is the name of the organic compounds containing amino groups?
Amines
What is the name of the organic compounds containing sulfhydryl groups?
Thiols
What is the name of the organic compounds containing phosphate groups?
Organic Phosphates
Draw Glycine
See p.72 Glycine
Define an Amino Acid by the functional groups it is composed of.
Both Amino and Carboxyl Groups
Does an amino group act as an acid or base?
Base (accepts H proton)
Does a carboxyl group act as an acid or base?
Acid because O's high electronegativity H is donated.
Draw a non-ionized Carboxyl group
See p.56 for Non-Ionized Carboxyl Group
Draw an Ionized Carboxyl group
See p.58 for Ionized Carboxyl Group
Draw a non-ionized Amino group
See p.58 for Non-ionized Amino Group
Draw an ionized Amino group
See p.58 for Ionized Amino Group
Draw a Ketone
See p.58 for Ketone (Carbonyl Group)
Draw an Aldehyde
See p.58 Aldehyde (Carbonyl Group)
What forms the skeletons of most organic molecules?
Carbon chains
Name a chain in organic molecules
What are the most versatile building blocks of molecules?
Carbon atoms
What is the key to the chemical characteristics of an atom?
Electron configuration
What determines the kind and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms?
Electron configuration
What is intersection of a molecule that branches off in up to 4 directions?
Tetravalence
What determines the function of a molecule?
Shape
What does each line in a structural formula represent?
Covalent Bond - a pair of shared electrons
What are the 4 variations in Carbon Skeletons?
1. Length
2. Branching- branched/unbranched
3. Double Bonds-different locations
4. Rings
Define Organic Chemistry
The study of carbon compounds
What type of atom, other than C, do most organic compounds contain?
Hydrogen