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164 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
appendicular skeleton
bones of shoulder pelvis and upper and lower extremities
axial skeleton
bones of skull, vertebral column chest and hyoid bone
bone
specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes forming the skeleton
compact bone
tightly solid strong bone tissue resistant to bending
spongy bone
meshlike bone tissue containing marrow and fine branching canals through which blood vessels run
long bones
bones of arms and legs
short bones
bones of wrists and ankles
flat bones
bones of ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis and skull
irregular bones
bones of vertebrae and face
sesamoid bones
round bones found near joints
epiphysis
wide ends of a long bone
diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
metaphysis
growth zone between epiphysis and diaphysis druing development of a long bone
endosteum
membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
medullary cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
bone marrow
soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones
red bone marrow
functions to form red blood cells some white blood cells and platelets; found in cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults
yellow bone marrow
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; fuctions as storage for fat tissue; and is inactive in formation of blood cells
periosteum
a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
articular cartilage
agristlelike substance on bones where they articulate
articulation
a joint; the point where two bones come together
bursa
a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones, lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
disk
a flat, platelike structure composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue found between the vertebrae to reduce friction
mucleus pulpsus
ssoft fibrocartilaginous central portion of intervertebral disc
ligament
a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
synovial membrane
membrane lining the capsule of a joint
synovial fluid
joint-lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
muscle
tissue composed of fibers that can contract causing movement of an organ or part of the body
striated (skeletal) muscle
voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton
smooth muscle
involuntairy muscle found in internal organs
cardiac muscle
muscle of the heart
origin of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
insertion of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
tendon
a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
fascia
a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that convers, supports, and separates muscle
anatomical position
position of the body to which health professionals refer when noting body planes, position or directions: the person is assumed to be standing upright, facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart with arms at sides and palms facing forward; the PT is visualized in this pose before applying any other term of reference
body planes
reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts
coronal or frontal plane
vertical division of the body into anterior and posterior portions
sagittal plane
vertial division of the boday into right and left portions
transverse plane
horizontal divisioin of the body into upper and lower portions
anterior (A) ventral
front of the body
posterior (P) dorsal
back of the body
anterior-posterior (AP)
front to back; like an xray beam
posterir-anterior (PA)
back to front; like an xray beam
superior (cephalic)
situated above another structure; towards the head
inferior (caudal)
situated below another structure; away from the head
proximal
toward the beginning or origin of a structure

eg: the ___ aspect of the femur is the area closet to where it attaches to the hip
distal
away from the beginning or origin of a structure

eg: the ___ aspect of the femour is the area at the end of the bone near the knee
medial
toward the middle (midline)
lateral
toward the side
axis
line that runs thru the center of the body or body part
erect
normal standing position
decubitus
lying down, esp in a bed
prone
lying face down and flat
recumbent
lying down
supine
horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back (on the spine)
flexion
bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased

ex: flexing arm to a 90* angle
extension
straightening at the joint so that the angle between teh bones is increased

ex: extending an arm to point
abduction
movt away from the body
adduction
movt toward the body
rotation
circular movt around an axis
eversion
turning outward
inversion
turning inward
supination
turning upward or forward of the palmar surface
pronation
turning downward or backward of the palmar surface
dorsiflexion
bending of the foot or the toes upward (flex)
plantar flexion
bending of the sole of the floot by curling the toes toward the ground (point)
range of motion (ROM)
total motion possilbe in a joint described by the terms related to body movts

ie: the ability to flex, extend, abduct or adduct; measured in degrees
goniometer
inst used to measure joint angles
arthraliga
joint pain
atrophy
shrinking of muscle size
crepitation
grating sounds sometimes made by movt of a joint or broken bones
crepitus
grating sounds sometimes made by movt of a joint or broken bones
exostosis
a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
flaccid
flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
hypertrophy
inc in muscle size
hypotonia
reduced muscle tension
ostealgia
bone pain
osteodynia
bone pain
rigor or rigidity
stiffness; stiff muscle
spasm
drawing in; involuntary contraction of muscle
spastic
uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and awkward movts
tetany
tension; prolonged continuous muscle contraction
tremor
shaking; rhythmic muscular movt
ankyosis
stiff joint condition
arthritis
inflammation of the joints char. by pain swelling redness warmth and limited ROM
osteoarthritis
most common form of arthritis, esp affecting weight-bearing joints; char by erosion of articular cartilage
rheumatoid arthritis
most crippling form; char by chronic systemic inflammation most often affecting joints and synovial membranes; esp in hands and feet; causes ankylosis and deformity
gouty arthritis
acute attacks of arthritis usually in a single joint caused by hyperuricemia
bony necrosis
bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply (after a fracture
sequestrum
bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply (after a fracture
bunioin
swelling of the joint at the base of the breat toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
bursitis
inflammation of the bursa
chondromalacia
softening of the cartilage
epiphysitis
inflammation of the epiphseal regions of the long bone
fracture
broken or cracked bone
closed fracture
broken bone with no open wound
open fracture
compound frature; broken bone with and open wound
simple fracture
a nondisplaced fracture wtih one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair (hairline Fx, stress Fx, crack)
complex fracture
a displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
fracture line
the line of the break in a broken bone
comminuted fracture
broken in to many little pieces
greenstick fracture
bending and incomplete break oof a bone -- most often seen in children
herniated disk
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk sot hat the nucleus pulposus protudes causing compression on the nerve root
myeloma
bone marrow tumor
myositis
inflam of muscle
myoma
muscle tumor
leiomyoma
smooth muscle tumor
leiomyoscarcoma
malignant smooth muscle tumor
rhabdomyoma
skeletal muscle tumor
rabdomyoscarcoma
malignant skeletal muscle tumor
muscular dystrophy
a category of genetically transmitted diseases char by progressive atrophy of skeltal muscles (Duchenne's type)
osteoma
bone tumor
osteosarcoma
type of malignant bone tumor
oseomalacia
disease marked by softening of the bone caused bye calcium and vitamin D deficiency
rickets
osteomalacia in children causing deformity in bones
osteomyelitis
infection of bone and marrow causing inflam
osteopororsis
cond. of decreased bone density and inc porosity causing bones to become brittle and to more easily fracture
kyphosis
abnormal posterior curve of thoratic spine (humped back)
lordosis
abnormal anterior curve of lumbar spine (sway back)
scoliosis
abnormal laterl curve (S shaped curve)
spondylolisthesis
fowards slipping of a lumbar vertebra
spondylosis
stifff immoblie condition of vertebrae
sprain
injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture
subluxation
a partial dislocation
tendinitis / tendonitis
inflam of a tendon
electromyogram (EMG)
neurodiagnostic graphic record of the electrical activity f muscle at rest and during contraction; used to diagnose neuromusculoskeletal disorders
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a nonionizing (no xray) imaging technique using magnectic fields and radio freq waves to visuaalize anatomic structures; used in dectiong joint tendon and vertebral disc disorders
nuclear medicine imaging
a diagnostic imaging technique using injected or ingested radioactive isotopes and a gamma-camera for determining size shape location and fuction of various body parts
radionucleide organ imaging
a diagnostic imaging technique using injected or ingested radioactive isotopes and a gamma-camera for determining size shape location and fuction of various body parts
bone scan
a nuclear scan of bone tissue to detect a tumor, malignancy, etc
radiography (xray)
imaging modality using xrays to diagnose condition or impairment somewhere in the body
arthrogram
a radiograph of a joint taken after injection of a contrast medium
computed tomography (CT)
a radiologic procedure using a machine called a scanner to take a series of cross sectional xray images in a full circle rotation; a computer then calculates the rates of absorption and density of the radiographs to create an image
computated axial tomography
a radiologic procedure using a machine called a scanner to take a series of cross sectional xray images in a full circle rotation; a computer then calculates the rates of absorption and density of the radiographs to create an image
sonography
use of high freq sound waves to make an image of tissues or structures
amputation
partial or complete removal of a limb
aka
above knee amputation
bka
below knee amputation
arthrocentesis
puncture for aspiration of a joint
arthrodesis
binding or fusing of joint surfaces
arthroplasty
repair or reconstruction of a joint
arthroscopy
procedure using an arthroscope to examine diagnose and repair a joint from within
bone grafting
transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
bursectomy
excision of a bursa
myoplasty
repair of a muscle
open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF)
internal surgical repair of a fracture by bringing bones back into alignment and fixing them into place with devices such as plates screws and pins
osteotomy
an incision into a bone
osteoplasty
repair of a bone
spondylosyndesis
spinal fusion
tenotomy
division by incision of a tendon to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture
external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along with application of an extrenal device to protect and hold the bone in place while healing
casting
use of a stiff solid dressing around a limb or other body part to immobilize it during healing
splinting
use of a rigid device to immobilize or restrain a broken bone to injured body part
traction (Tx)
application of a pulling force to a fracture bone of dislocated joint to maintain proper positioning for healing
closed reductions percutaneous fixation of a fracture
external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment followed by insertion of one or more pins thru the skin to maintain position -- often incl. use of an external device called a fixator to keep the fracture immobilized during healing
orthosis
use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bone's position or to provide limb support
physical therapy (PT)
treatment to rehabilitate patients disabled by illness or injury involving many diff modalities such as exercise hydrotherapy diathermy and ultrasound
prosthesis
an artificial replacement for a missing body part or a device used t improve a body fuction such as an artificial limb hip or joint
analgesic
a drug that relieves pain
narotic
a potent analgesic with addictive properties
anti-inflammatory
a drug that reduces inflammation
antipyretic
a drug that relieves fever
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
a group of drugs with analgesic, anti-inflam and anytipyretic properties, commonly used to treat arthritis

ie: tylenol, aspirin