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60 Cards in this Set

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What are the four types of tissues in the human body?
Epithelial, nervous, muscle, and connective
What makes up the digestive system?
mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines
What is physiology?
Study of the function of all structures
What is anatomy?
Study of actual parts and structures
What is the integummantory system?
Nail, skin, hair
What is the lymphatic system?
works with the immune system
What is the main role of the nervous system?
Transmit messages throughout the body
What do muscles do?
Allow for contraction/movement
What are three types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal muscles (voluntary), Cardiac (involuntary), smooth (involuntary)
What is the main role of connective tissue?
Hold things together, cushions and protects organs
Sparse cells that are surrounded by a non-living matrix
What is the epithelial tissue?
Covers the entire body, protection, they line internal organs.
Many shapes, many layers, closely packed
What does the epithelial system release?
Mucus, sweat, digestive enzymes
What is the two sides that that the human body has?
Ventral - front of body
Dorsal - back of body
What is a human body cavity?
Hole in your body containing organs
What organs are contained in the dorsal cavities?
Vertebral column - spine
Cranial cavity- skull
How many bones make up the human skeletal system?
206
What is the purpose of the skeletal system in our body?
Structural support, levers for the muscles, protection (internal organs), stores minerals (site for blood cell formation)
What is the skeletal system made up of?
Bones, cartilage (soft bone - cushioning in between movable bones found on tip of nose and ears as well), tendons and ligaments (connects things)
What is a joint area?
Where bones meet
What are two parts of the skeletal system?
Axial skeleton (center part of skeleton - ribs, vertebrae, skull)
Appendicular skeleton (limbs - shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle)
What are six types of nutrients found in foods?
minerals, carbohydrates, vitamins, protein, water, fat
What are the four stages of food processing?
Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
What are the two types of digestion?
Chemical and mechanical
What is mechanical digestion?
Breaking food down into smaller parts without the use of enzymes (stomach churning, teeth/tongue)
What is chemical digestion?
Breaking food down using enzymes/acids
What is the name given to the tube involved in digestion?
alimentary canal
What types of cells line the digestive tract?
Epithelial cells - secrete mucus
What substances are secreted by the cells to lubricate canal and prevent body from digesting itself?
Mucus
What are the organs of the digestive tract?
Mouth, pharynx, esophogus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
What are the accessory glands?
Salivary glands (saliva), liver (bile), gallbladder (stores bile), pancreas (pancreatic juice)
What is an amalyse?
start digesting carbs
What does the mouth use chemically for digestion?
Amylase, enzymes (move of them in water, neutralizing agents, anti-bacterial).
What does the mouth use mechanically for digestion?
Teeth/tongue, increasing surface area for digestion.
How is the pharynx involved in digestion?
Basically swallowing
What makes up the stomach?
Muscular sac capable of storing up to two liters of food
Gastric juice secreted by the stomach lining
What are the components of gastric juice?
Mucus - protective lining
Hydrocloric acid - breaks material and tissue down/kills bacteria
pepsin - enzyme that begins protein digestion
What is the muscle that regulates passage of material between different organs of the digestive tract?
Sphincter
Food in the stomach is called what?
Chyme
What is the liver's involvement in digestion?
Produces bile and sends it to the gallbladder to store it. Then sends it to the small intestine to emulsify fat.
What is the pancreas' involvement in digestion?
Makes pancreatic juice (amylase, tripsin, lipase)
What is the small intestine?
Tube is about 6 meter long and 2.5cm. wide
Digestion is completed and most nutrients are absorbed here
Peristalsis moves chyme along
Takes about 5-6 hours for digestion and absorption
Digestion mostly occurs int eh first portion of intestine
Absorption occurs int eh rest of its length
what is the name of the small finger-like projections that line the interior wall of the small intestine ?
Villi
What are the levels of organization in a multi cellular organism?
cells, tissues, organs and organ systems
What is homeostasis?
the process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in external environments
What does the nervous system control?
it controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli
What is the basic structural unit of the nervous system?
neurons
When does a nerve impulse begin?
it begins when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron or by its environment
What does the central nervous system do?
it relays messages, processes information and analyzes information
What does the central nervous system consist of?
the brain and the spinal cord
What are bones?
a solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of chemical salts
How can joints be classified?
immovable, slightly movable or freely movable
When do muscle fibers contract?
when the thin filaments in the muscle fiber slide over the thick filaments
What is the integumentary system?
serves as a barrier against infection and injury
helps to regulate the body temperature
removes waste products from the body and provides protection from ultra violet radiation from the sun
What does the human circulatory system consist of?
the heart, a series of blood vessels and the blood that flows through them
What are the three types of blood vessels?
arteries, capilaries and vains
What type of blood cells transport oxygen?
red blood cells
What do white blood cells do?
they guard against infection, fight parasites and fight bacteria
What do you need for blood clotting?
plasma proteins and cell fragments called platelets
What is the lymphatic system?
its a network of vessels, nodes and organs that collects the fluid that is lost by the blood and returns it to the circulatory system
What is the basic function of the human respiratory system?
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air and tissues