Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chapter 3
BIOLOGY
alcohol
Organic compound that includes one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH); it dissolves readily in water. Sugars are examples.
amino acid
Organic compound with an H atom, amino group, acid group, and R group, all covalently bonded to a carbon atom. Subunit of polypeptide chains.
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate (ah-den-uh-seen try-foss-fate). Nucleotide with adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups that drives most energy-requiring metabolic reactions.
carbohydrate
Molecule of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen mostly in a 1:2:1 ratio. Main kinds are monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. They are structural materials, energy stores, and transportable energy forms.
coenzyme
Nucleotide that accepts electrons, H atoms that enzymes strip from substrates and transfers them to a different reaction site.
condensation reaction
Covalent bonding of two molecules into a larger one; water often forms as a by-product.
denaturation
Loss of a molecule's three-dimensional shape as weak bonds (e.g., hydrogen bonds) are disrupted.
disaccharide
[Gk. di, two, + sakcharon, sugar] A common oligosaccharide; two covalently bonded sugar monomers.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Of cells and many viruses, the molecule of inheritance. H bonds join its two helically twisted nucleotide strands, one of which has instructions (in its base sequence) for synthesizing all of the enzymes and other proteins required to build and maintain cells.
enzyme
A type of protein or one of the few RNAs that catalyze reactions between substances, most often at functional groups.
fat
Lipid with a glycerol head and one, two, or three fatty acid tails. Unsaturated tails have single covalent bonds in the carbon backbone; saturated tails have one or more double bonds.
fatty acid
Molecule with a backbone of up to 36 carbon atoms, a carboxyl group (-COO- or -COOH) at one end, and hydrogen atoms at most or all of the other bonding sites.
functional group
An atom or group of atoms that is covalently bonded to the carbon backbone of an organic compound and that influences its chemical behavior.
functional-group transfer
Enzyme-mediated event in which a molecule donates one or more functional groups to another molecule.
glyceride
Molecule having one, two, or three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol backbone; one of the fats or oils.
glycogen
A highly branched polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers; the main storage carbohydrate in animals.
glycoprotein
Protein with linear or branched oligosaccharides covalently bonded to it; most surface proteins of animal cells and many proteins circulating in blood are glycoproteins.
hemoglobin
[Gk. haima, blood, + L. globus, ball] An iron-containing respiratory protein of red blood cells.
hydrocarbon
Organic compound that has only hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon backbone.
hydrolysis
[L. hydro, water, + Gk. lysis, loosening] Cleavage reaction that breaks covalent bonds and splits a molecule into two or more parts. H+ and OH- (from a water molecule) are often attached to the newly exposed bonding sites.
lipid
A mostly greasy or oily hydrocarbon; strongly resists dissolving in water but readily dissolves in nonpolar substances. All cells use lipids as storage forms of energy, structural materials as in membranes, and cell products.
monomer
Small molecule used as a subunit of polymers, such as sugar monomers of starch.
monosaccharide
[Gk. monos, alone, single, + sakcharon, sugar] One of the simple carbohydrates (e.g., glucose).
nucleic acid
Single- or double-stranded chain of four kinds of nucleotides joined at their phosphate groups. Nucleic acids (e.g., DNA, RNA ) differ in base sequences.
nucleotide
Small organic compound with deoxyribose (a five-carbon sugar), a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. Monomer for adenosine phosphates, nucleotide coenzymes, and nucleic acids.
oligosaccharide
Short-chain carbohydrate of two or more covalently bonded sugar monomers (e.g., disaccharides).
organic compound
Molecule of one or more elements covalently bonded to some number of carbon atoms.
phospholipid
Organic compound that has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid tails, and a hydrophilic head of two polar groups (one being phosphate). Phospholipids are the main structural component of cell membranes.
polymer
[Gk. polus, many, + meris, part] Large molecule of three to millions of monomers of the same or different kinds.
polypeptide chain
An organic compound of three or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds; atoms of its backbone have this pattern: -N-C-C-N-C-C- . All proteins are composed of one or more polypeptide chains.
polysaccharide
[Gk. polus, many, + sakcharon, sugar] Straight or branched chain of many covalently linked sugar units of the same or different kinds. In nature, the most common types are cellulose, starch, and glycogen.
protein
Organic compound composed of one or more polypeptide chains.
rearrangement, molecular
Conversion of one organic compound to another through changes in its internal bonds.
RNA
Ribonucleic acid. Any of a class of single-stranded nucleic acids that function in transcribing and translating the genetic instructions encoded in DNA into proteins.
sterol
Lipid with a rigid backbone of four fused carbon rings (e.g., cholesterol). Sterols differ in the number, position, and type of their functional groups.
toxin
Normal metabolic product of a species that can hurt or kill a different species.
triglyceride
(neutral fat) A type of lipid that has three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol backbone. Triglycerides are the body's most abundant lipids and its richest energy source.
COVALENT BONDING
THE CHEMICAL BOND BETWEEN 2 ATOMS MADE BY THE SHARING OF 2 ELECTRONS