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18 Cards in this Set

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Bottleneck Theory
Attempts to explain how people select information when some info processing stage becomes overloaded with too much info
Capacity Theory
Proposes that we have a limited amount of mental effort to distribute across tasks, so there are limitations on the number of tasks we can perform at the same time
Automatic Processing
Performing mental operations that require very little mental effort
Filter Model
Proposition that a bottleneck occurs at the pattern recognition stage and that attention determines what info reaches the pattern recognition stage
Broadbent's Filter Model
Split Scan Procedure: 3 pairs of numbers were presented to each ear with 1/2sec pause
- Subjects reported letters in any order
- Generally: reported 1 ear then the other ear= 65% correct
- Order of Representation: 20% coorect-->
- If 3 pairs of numbers are presented, a filter allows all info from one ear and the info from the other ear is temporarily blocked
- Info from unattended channel should not get processed
-Takes time to switch attention from ear to ear
-If time seperating info is too short, attention cant switch back & forth and performance will deteriorate
Broadbent's Filter Model-Limitations
Sensory store would have to last fairly long in order to operate as proposed - If not, the info would decay before it could be recognized
Triesman's Attenuation Model
-Filter doesn't completely block out the unattended channel
-Pattern recognition uses a dictionary: representations of words have different thresholds
-P asked to shadow one ear & ignore the other
-Meaning was switched between ears & P followed the meaning--> Info from unattended ear must have been recognized
* Filter=Attenuation Device, NOT all or none barrier
1) Selection Filter - distinguishes between 2 messages based on physical characteristics
2) Dictionary - recognition occurs if intensity of word exceeds its threshold
Triesmans Model
-Threshold
Threshold
1. They vary across words
2. Can be momentarily lowered by expectations
Attenuation - Decrease in perceived loudness of an unattended message
** - Words on the unattended channel were sometimes incorrectly shadowed if they better fit the context of the message on the attended channel
Shadowing
Requires people to repeat the attended message out loud
- The act of or repeating of a message that is being presented together with other, irrelevant messages
Deutsch-Norman Model
Bottleneck occurs after pattern recognition - During Selection--> Late Selection Model
-All incoming stimuli are recognized
-Stimuli are quickly forgotten unless they're important & therefore selected for further processing for permanent storage
-Selection for further procesing is based on pertinence (importance) & the amount of sensory activation
Capacity Theories
Failure to agree on location of bottleneck has 2 consequences
1. Observer has some control over where the bottleneck occurs, depending on what the task requires
- more capacity is required for late selection after pattern recognition than for early selection before it
2. Study of capacity demands of different tasks
Capacity Theories: Kahneman's Model of Attention
-capacity model proposes that interference occurs when the demands of 2 activities exceed available capacity
-interference is nonspecific & depends on the total demands of the task
-people have control over how limited capacity can be allocated to different activities
-the amount of capacity available varies with the level of arousal - More Capacity=Medium High Arousal
-involuntary attention can depend on voluntary attention
-not all stimuli automatically capture attention-involuntary capture can depend on how we are directing our attention
Johnston & Heinz: Multimode Theory
-attention is flexible - Interaction between bottlneck & capacity theory
-listner has control over location of bottlneck
Multimode Theory- flexible - observer can adopt any mode of attention demanded by or best suited to a task
-more capacity is required to perform at late mode of selection
-selective attention requires capacity-amount of capacity required increases from early to late modes of selection
-person can increase breadth of attention but only at a cost in capacity expenditure & selection accuracy
Automatic Skills
3 Criteria
1. Occurs without intention
2. Does not give rise to conscious awareness
3. Does not interfere with other mental activities
-stroop effect
2 Processes that would overload capacity without automatic skills
1. Encoding info into memory
2. reading
Stroop Effect
It takes longer to name the color of the ink a word is printed in when the word is the name of a competing color (the word red is printed in blue ink)
Incidental Learning
learning that occurs when we do not make a conscious effort to learn
Automatic Processing & Reading
LaBerge & Samuels - ability to acquire complex, multicomponent skills like reading, depends on the capability of automatic processing
-unless at least some of the component skills can be completed without requiring capacity, the total demands of all component skills will be simply too great for the individual to perform the task
-Component Skill Required for Reading: Ability to identify the features of a letter - After this is established the features are combined automatically to form letters, freeing capacity for all other component skills
Stages in Processing
Broadbent, Treisman, Deutsch-Norman
BROADBENT: 1)Filter
2) Sensory Store - Attention is represented by filter that determines what info is recognized - Unattended info can be seen if attention switches to it before it decays in sensory store
TREISMAN: 1)Filter 2) Pattern Recognition - Filter attenuates unattended message, few words are recognized on unattended channel - Must have low threshold (exceeds attended) to recognize unattended
DEUTSCH-NORMAN - 1)Pattern Recognition 2)Selection - Both messages are recognized, only words selected into memory can be later recalled