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47 Cards in this Set

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What are the different functions of the plasma membrane?
1. Create internal and exrternal boundaries.
2. Provide structure and support to the cell.
3. The membrane is sensetive to the external enviornment.
4. The membrane functions as the gate keeper. it regulates the entrey of minerals into the cell.
The plasma membrane of the cell is a living dynamic structure. In order of concentration, list teh primary components of the plasma membrane.
1. Phospholipid bylayer
2. Proteines
3. glyco proteins and glyco lipids.
4. Cholestrol ( makes the plasma membrane plyable)
What are some different types of membrane proteins found in the phospholipid bi-layer? What are their functions?
List 6
1. Channel proteins or transmembrane proteins. they contain a water filled central channel used to transport water and Ions into or out of the cell.

2.Receptor Proteins are anchered within the cel membrane, they bind to specific hormones (when a hormone binds ot a receptor it changes the cells properties.
3. Carier or transport proteins. ie transports glucose or amino acids into the cell.
4. Enzymes, they are a biological catalyst
5. Anchoring proteins some organelles are ancored to the cytoskeleton or other organelles.
6. Identifer proteins mark or label the proteins as self proteins.
Are the heads of the phospholipid bilayer hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
What is the difference between polar and non polar? which is which in the phosolipid bylayer?
the outside layer of the phosophlipid bilayer is polar meaning hydrophilic. Inbetween the two layers is a non polar enviornment, meaning it is hydrophobic. this is due to the fatty acid chains.
What are some factors that allow the plasma membrane to be selectively permeable and act as the gatekeeper of the cell?
1. lipid solubility (like disolves like)
2. Substance size ( oxygen and carbondioxygen defuse through the phospholipid bilayer.
3. the presence of channel and transport proteins
Can the number of transport proteins limit the ammount of water and sugars into the cell?
Transport processes are utalized to move materials in and out of the cell and are either passive ar active. Name 4 different passive transport processes.
1. Simple diffusion
2. Facilitated diffusion
3. Osmosis
4. Filtration
Do molecules always travel from a low to high concentration or a high to low concentration?
high to low
What dictates the direction of molecular movement durring a pasive transport process?
The concentration gradient.
Is ATP utilized in the movement of molecules?
What type of energy is utilized in molecular movement?
Kenetic energy
Why is diffusion essential in the human body.

Hint: think about the digestive and excreation need of the body.
Example: the cells in our body generate a high level of Coabondioxide at a intercellular level. because the co2 level is less outside the cell and even less in the blood stream defusion allows co2 to flow through our bodies ond out our lungs.
What are the primary factors involved in the diffusion of substances across the plasma membrane?
1. The lipis soluability of the membrane
2. Its size reletative to the size of the membrane channel.
3. the grater the concentration gradient the faster the diffusion.
How would a increase in temperature affect diffusion? Why?
An increase in temperatuer would speed up diffusion because the molecules would speed up ae temp increases and this would increase diffusion.
name 4 different passive transport processes.
1. Simple Diffusion
2. Facillated Diffusion
3. Osmosis
4. Filtration
What dictates the direction of molecular movement durring passive transport processes?
Concentration Gradient
Is ATP utulized in the movement of molecules, durring a passive transport process.
What type of energy is utilized in molecular movement?
kenetic Energy
List 3 ways in which diffusion is essential in the human body.
1. Exchange in respetory gasses
2. Absorbtion of nutrients from the GI trrack into the blood stream.
3. vitamens abosrbed into skin from sunlight.
What are the primary factors involved in the diffusion of substances across the plasma membrane.
1. Diffusion
2. Passing through a gate or channel protein
3. Blending with a like protein.
How would a decrease in body temperature affect diffusion? Why?
It would slow down diffusion because the molecules would slow down as the temperature decreases.
What type of materials are transported into a cell via facilitated diffusion?
1. Glucose
2. Amino Acids
How does facilitated diffusion differ from simple diffusion?
1. The Amino acids are too large so they need the assistance of a carier protein in order to enter the cell.
Difine Osmosis?
the diffusion of water molecules across a semi permiable membrainflowing towards the solution with a higher comcentration of solutes.
Difine solutes?
materials the can be disolved in a solution
Difine solvent?
The solution in which solutes are disolved.
Define filtration?
Movement of water and disolved materials through a semi permiable membrain by pressure. ie. Blood pressure.
*Hydrostatic presure forceses water across a membrane. if the soluable molecules are small enough to fit through the membrain they wil pass through with the water.
Why is filtration important in the body.
the cleaning of blood by the kidneys occures through filtration.
What is active transport?
Molecules move from a low to high concentration gradient.
What is the difference between Active and Passive transport systems?
1. Active transport is dependent on ATP. Active transports may follow or go against the concentration gradient.
2. Passive transport requires no ATP. Solutes typically move from a high to a low concentration.
What are th eprimary ions transported by ion pumps?
Sodium Na+
Potassium K+
Calcium Ca2+
Magnesium Mg2+
Ions are moved in the body Via active transport?

True or False
True: All cells contain carrier proteins called ion pumps that actively transport ions.
How does the sodium-potassium pump maintain ion concentrations? If there was an absence of ATP, how are sodium-potassium pumps affected?
It exchanges ions for example it ejects sodium ions and recaptures potassium ions.
Define endocytosis:
Large materials enter the cell.

Endo = (inside) + Cyte = (Cell)
Define Pinocytosis. Is it a selective process?
Liquids entering thte cell. (cell drinking)

It is not a selective process
Are all cell capable of Pinocytosis?
Define phagocytosis?
Solids entering the cell. (cell eating)
Are all cells capable of phagocytosis?
NO. Only certain cell can preform phagocytosis. ie White blood cells
Define exocytosis?
Materials are exiting the cell. ie. Discharging waste products and also discharging functional hormones.
Define cytoplasm?
Fluid and organelles within the cell.
Define cytosol?
The fluid portion of the cell only. Composed primarilty of H20, electorlights, Proteins and nutrients.
define organelles?
Mini organs within the cell they have specific shapes for a specific functions.
What is the fluid located in a blood vessel?
What is the fluid Outside of a cell called?
ECF Extra cellular fluid
What is the fluid locater in a lumph vessel?
Lymph fluid
What is the fluid called that is located outside of a cell in between many cells?
Interstitial fluid.