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135 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
__________ is from penetration thru first 8 weeks of development?
EMBRYO
___________ is the term from week 9 till birth?
FETUS
once born, ___________ is the term refered to from first month after birth?
NEONATAL
first trimester-
from when to when?
rudimentary version of all ____?
most susceptible to damage from _________, _________, and _____?
months 1-3
rudimentary version of all organ systems develop.
most suceptible to damage from drugs, radiation, and microbes
second trimester-
from when to when?
organs are ______ _____ _______?
months 4-6
organs are nearly completely developed.
third trimester-
from when to when?
organs are _____ _________?
months 7-9
organs are fully functional.
EMBRYONIC PERIOD
Week 1
sperm must reach oocyte and be able to penetrate, this is called?
CAPACITATION
PENETRATION
sperm penetrates SECONDARY oocyte
sperm must penetrate?
1) __________
2) __________
3) __________
1) corona radiate (granulosa cells)
2) zona pellucida (glycoprotein layer
3) secondary oocyte (syngamy)
what happens when sperm penetrates secondary oocyte?
(fast) and (slow)
triggers reactions that prevent polyspermy
(fast) depolarization
(slow) release of molecules that inactivate ZP3 and harden zona
after penetration, which stage of meiosis is completed by forming an ovam?
MEIOSIS II
FERTILIZATION
fusion of sperm and ovum pronuclei
a fertilized ege is known as?
Zygote
MONOZYGOTIC twin-
three things?
same sperm and egg
zygote splits into two embryos
genetically identical
DIZYGOTIC twins-
two things
2 different sperm and 2 different eggs
same age, different genetics
CLEAVAGE of the zygote begins _____ hrs. after ___________?
24 hrs after fertilization.
during cleavage, cells become progessively ________, and are then called _________________?
cells become progessively smaller, and are then called BLASTOMETERS.
around day 3-4, cleavage as reached ___ cells, also known as ____________?
32 cells, AKA MORULA
BLASTOCYST formation, enters _____, around day __ or __.
UTERUS, around day 4 or 5.
inner cell mass of blastocyst develops into an _________?
EMBRYO
outer cell mass of blastocyst is known as ___________, and will become the __________?
TROPHOBLAST, will become the placenta.
around day 6 or 7, ____________ takes place in endometrium.
IMPLANTATION
after implantation, stratum functionalis is now called _________?
DECIDUA
decidua basalis, located between ________/_______ and stratum _________?
between blasocyst/embryo and stratum basalis.
decidua baslis provides ________ and ________?
glycogen and lipids
decidua basalis will become which portion of the placenta?
MATERNAL PORTION.
decidua capsularis, located between ___________/embryo and the ___________ ________?
between blasocyst/embryo and the uterine cavity.
the decidua capsularis, will eventually __________________.
DEGENERATE
decidua parietalis, is the _____________________________?
endometerium of the rest of the uterus.
ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
occurs outside the uterine cavity
happens twice as likely in smokers
ectopic pregnancy's happen twice as likely in smokers because ?
cilia of uterine tube become impared
week 2, trophoblast begin to release what hormone,______?
hCG
hCG will peak at (which) week?
peak around week 9
around day 8, the trophoblast forms two layers, ____________ and ________________?
syncythiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast
synchthiotrophoblast are _______ cells, and _____________________________?
fused cells, and release enzymes that allow for deeper implanation
cytotrophoblast are ____________ cells.
distinct cells.
inner cell mass (two layers) of the bilaminar embryonic disc?
primative endoderm
primative ectoderm
primative ectoderm forms the _____________ ___________?
amnionic cavity
composition of amnionic fluid.
1)
2)
3)
1) filtered maternal blood
2) fetal urine
3) embryonic cells (amniocentesis)
functions of amnionic fluid.
1)
2)
3)
1) shock absorber
2) temperature regulation
3) prevents fetal skin from sticking to other structures
rupturing of amnionic sac refered to as __________ ______?
water breaking.
development of what sac around day 9?
YOLK sac
yolk sac is developed from the ___________?
ENDODERM
yolk sac ______ and _________ blastocyst cavity?
fills and surrounds
around day 9, bilaminar embryonic disc now between the ______ and the ________ sacs.
amnionic and the yolk sacs
functions of the yolk sac?
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
1)transfer of nutrients
2) production of fetal blood cells
3) source of promodial germ cells
4) will form portions of GI tract
5) shock absoption
endometrial capillaries dilated around embryo?
SINUSOIDS
sinusoids are source of _________ and removal of ________?

(hint)
nutrition and removal of waste.
think ziplock bag...
from the trophoblast layers, ________ forms.
CHORION
which hormone is produced by the chorion?
hCG
which layer will become fetal portion of placenta?
CHORION
chorion ___________ maternal immune function in the uterus?
suppresses
chorion, attached to embryo by connecting stalk (end of ____ week), which is the future _______ _____?
end of 2nd week, future umbilical cord.
GASTRULATION occurs at week?
week 3
during gastrulation, what embryonic layers are formed?
ENDODERM
MESODERM
ECODERM
gastrulation, endoderm will produce? ______ and ______.
lining of GI tract
lining of respiratory tract
gastrulation, mesoderm will produce? ________, _________ and ________?
muscle, bone, and connective tissue
gastrulation, ectoderm will produce? ________ and ________?
epidermis and nervous system
development of the cardiovascular system beings at week _____.
week 3
primitive heart tube forms and begins to beat, at what week
week 3
external ears and the eys begin to develop at what which week?
week 4
Organogenesis is recognized at which week?
week 4
limb buds appear at which week
week 4
rapid development of ______, ______, and ________, at weeks 5-8.
brain, limbs, and four-chambered heart
ossification begins at which week(s)?
week 5-8
blood formed in liver at which week(s)?
week 5-8
FETAL PERIOD
WEEKS 9-12
6 things happen?
1) eyes fully develop
2) ossification continues
3)genitalia are distinguishable
4)urine released by fetus
5) marrow, thymus, spleen and liver produce blood
6) baby begins to move
FETAL PERIOD
WEEKS 13-16
2 things happen?
1) eyes and ears in final position
2) continued development of organs system
FETAL PERIOD
WEEKS 17-20
3 things happen?
1) Hair
2) brown fat forms (keep you warm)
3) fetal movements can be felt by mother.
FETAL PERIOD
WEEKS 21-25
2 things happen?
1) weight gain
2) surfactant produced (week 24)
FETAL PERIOD
WEEKS 26-29
5 things happen?
1) toenails visible
2) testes begin to descent
3) red marrow produces majority of blood cells
4) body fat 3.5%
5) may survive premature birth with itensive care
FETAL PERIOD
WEEKS 30-34
5 things happen?
1) growth
2) head down position
3) papillary reflex present
4) body fat 8%
5) usually survive when born prematurely
FETAL PERIOD
WEEKS 35-38
3 things happen?
1) growth slows
2) testes in scrotum
3) body fat 16%
ULTRASONOGRAPHY
what type of technology, what does it do (specifically)
uses sound waves
used to estimate fetal age.
evaluate fetal development/viability
AMNIOCENTESIS
what is it?
what are the risks?
when is it likely used?
when can it be done
removal/study of 10-30 mL of amnionic fluid
0.5% risk of miscarriage
only used when genetic defect suspected
14-18 weeks
AMNIOCENTESIS
what conditions could someone be looking for?
to detect gender (XY status)
Down's syndrome
Tay-Sachs disease
sickle-cell anemia
CHORIONIC VILLI SAMPLING
what is the product of the test?
what is the risk
when can this be done?
removal of 30 mL. of chorionic villi material
(catheter through cervic)
1-2% chance of misscarriage
can be used at 8 weeks
CHORIONIC VILLI SAMPLING
what conditions could you be looking for?
detect gender (XY status)
Down's syndrome
Tay-Sachs disease (metabolic disorder)
sickle-cell anemia
Noninvasive prenatal test
what is tested?
risk?
used to detect?
test mothers blood
low risk to fetus
maternal alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
AFP
when is it produced
after what week, what can it detect
produced by fetus weeks 12-15
after 16 weeks, indicates neural tube defects
Down's syndrome
trisomy 18 (three copies of chromosome 18)
Hormones of Pregnancy
hCG
where is it released?
peaks at ___ week?
drops off at __th. and __th. month.
CHORION
peaks at 9th week
drops of at 4th and 5th month.
Hormones of Pregnancy
estrogens and progesterone
released from _________ beginning 3rd/4th months
placenta
high ______________ prevents premature delivery
PROGESTERONE
high progesterone...
reduces ___________________,
keeps ______________ _______
reduces uterine contractions
keeps cervix closed
Hormones of Pregnancy
relaxin
released by _____________ and ___________
released by corpus luteum and placenta
relaxin prepares body for delivery by...
________________,
increased __________ _________
(hint)
dilate cervix,
increase joint flexibility
think about the name???
increase joint flexibility in,
pubic symphysis, sacroiliac joint, and sacrococcygeal joint caused by what hormone of pregnancy?
RELAXIN
THINK ABOUT THE QUESTION, WHAT IS OCCURING IN THE QUESTION???
Hormones of Pregnancy
hPL
released by __________?
reaches maximum at ___ week?
prepare _____________________?
released by placenta
reaches maximum at 32 week.
prepare mammary gland for milk production.
Hormones of Pregnancy
hPL
decreases _____________________
increases _____________________
decreases maternal use of glucoses
increases release of fatty acids from maternal adipose
Hormones of Pregnancy
CRH
released from __________
increases ___________, which is important for ____________ production.
released from placenta
increases cortisol levels, which is important for surfactant producition
Hormones of Pregnancy
high levels of ___ may serve as a warning sign of premature delivery?
CRH
(corticotrophin-releasing hormone)
physiological changes of cardiovascular to mother?
5 major issues
stoke volume increases
cardiac output increases
heart rate increases
blood volume increases
aorta and vena cava may be compressed by uterus
physiological changes of pulmonary system on the mother?
5 major issues
increases tidal volume
decreases expiratory reserve
increases minute respiration
decreases airway resistance
breathing may be more difficult due to limited movement of diaphragm
physiological changes of GI?
5 major issues
INCREASES...
hunger
heartburn
constipation
gastric emptying time
nausea and vomiting
physiological changes of urinary system?
3 issues...
INCREASES...
renal hypertension
frequency of urination and stress incontinence
filtration rate
sequence of hormones on labor.
release of ? (due to ?) which stimulates ? then that stimulates ? and ?, and that is converted to estrogen by placenta :-)
ESTROGEN levels increase due to the placental CRH, CRH stimulates fetal production of ACTH, ACTH stimulates fetal production of cortisol and DHEA, DHEA (dehyroepiaandrosterone) is converted to estrogen by placenta.
LABOR
estrogen causes changes in the
?
?
to the uterus
to the placenta
estrogen on the uterus causes...
?
?
oxytocin receptors
gap junctions
estrogen on the placenta...
releases _______________, which causes _________ release. Enzymes digest ____________ in cervix. What happens to the cervix?
releases prostaglandin, which causes enzyme relase. Enzymes digest collagen in cervix. Cervix softens.
OXYTOCIN and labor...
released from _______________
WHY?
released from posterior pituitary, in response to pressure on cervix, nipple stimulation, orgasm
FALSE LABOR
1)
2)
3)
4)
1) painful contractions
2) irregular time intervals
3) does not intensify
4) no/little cervical dilation
TRUE LABOR
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
1) paintful contractions
2) regular time intervals
3) intensify in strength and frequency
4) cervical dilation
5) bloody mucus in cervix
6) lasts average of 14 hours for first baby, 8 hours for others
three stages of
TRUE LABOR
DILATION
EXPULSION
PLACENTAL stage
Dilation stage of
true labor
from onset of labor to complete cervical dilation (10 cm.)
6 to 12 hours
regular contractions
rupture of amnionic sac
Expulsion stage of
true labor
from comlete cervical dilation to delivery of baby
10 min -hours
Placental stage of
TRUE LABOR
3 to 30 min.
delivery of the placenta
contractions during this time consitrict uterine arteries (decrease hemorrhage)
LATE DELIVERY
what can happen to fetus if more than 2 weeks late?
decreased O2
decreased nutrients
can cause brain damage
death to fetus
PITOCIN
can induce labor
synthetic oxitocin
surgical removal of fetus ?
Cesarean section or C-section
abdominal incision into uterus
removal of baby and placenta
what hormone aids in puerpurium?
what occures during this?
Oxytocin release during breastfeeding increases contractoin of the uterus to normal size.
PUERPURIUM
three things occure?
1)
2)
3)
1) involution
2) cervix regains firmness
3) lochia
Lochia (in relation to puerpurium) is ?
and happens ?
release of blood and serous fluid from endometrium
2-4 weeks after delivery this occures
stress of labor on fetus
release of _ and __?
4 things this does?
release of E and NE
1) survive stress
2) clear lungs
3) increase blood flow to brain and heart
4)release nutrient stored
Respiratory adjustments of the infant at birth...
1)
2)
3)
4)
1) surfactant production occures around 7 months
2) amnionic fluid in lungs absorbed at birth
3)O2 supply cut off, CO2 elimination stop at birth
cardiovascular adjustments of the infant at birth
1)closure of foramen ovale
2)closure of ductus arteriosus
3)umbilical artery and vein no longer funciton
4)collapse of ductus venosus
5)heart rate (at birth 120-160) rbpm
6)increased erythrocyte production
Hormonal control of lactation
prolactin
oxytocin
prolactin (PRL), in regards to lacation?
released from?
levels during pregnancy?
stimulated by?
promotes?
released from anterior pituitaty
leavels increase during pregnancy
stimulated by suckiling
PRL promotes milk production
oxytocin in regards to lacation
released during (three things)
causes contraction of ______________________?
results in _____________ (AKA)?
also decreases ___?
suckling, labor, orgasm
myoepithelial cells in the breast
milk ejection (let-down)
PIH
COLOSTRUM
produced ______________________?
not ______________ (low in _______________?
contains _________________?
prevents ____________________?
in week surrounding delivery
not a true milk (low in fats and lactose)
contains antibodies that protect new born
prevents dehydration of new born
benefits of lacation (to fetus)
1)
2)
3)
4)
nutrition
fluid intake
white blood cells and antibodies
decreased development of heart disease, allergies, GI infections, ear infections, diabetes mallitus, and obesitity
benefits of lacation (to mother)
1)
2)
3)
4)
faster return of uterus to normal size
faster weight loss
reduces risk of oseoporosis and breast cancer
reduces likelihood of ovulation
define
INHERITANCE
passage of hereditary traits from one generation to the next
DIPLOID CELLS ARE
two copies of each chromosome = 23 homologous pairs
each homologue contains genes fro the same traits (at the same locations
define
PUNNETT SQUARE
chart that shows possible combination of gametes produced by a set of parents
define
GENOTYPE
genetic make-up
define
DOMINANT ALLELE
if fully expressed and masks the presence of other alleles
define
RECESSIVE ALLELE
presence can be completely masked by a dominant allele
define
HOMOZYGOUS
same alleles
define
HETEROZYGOUS
different alleles
define
PHENOTYPE
physical expression of genetic alleles
define
NONDISJUNCTION
example of is?
chromosomes do not seperate normally during meiosis
may result in monosomy or trisomy in embryo
Down's syndrome: trisomy 21
define
TERATOGENS
(toxins
agent that causes developmental defects in the embryo
examples of teratogens:
3 big classifications
chemicals and drugs
cigarette smoking
irradiation
teratogens:
examples of chemicals and drugs
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
1) alcohol
2) pesticides
3) industrial chemicals
4) some antibiotics
5) prescription medications
6) drugs of abuse
cigarette smoking can cause to fetus, and pregnancy in general?
7 examples...
lower birth weight
increased fetal mortality and SIDS
increased chance of ectopic pregnancy
cardiac abnormalities
anenceophaly (lack of cerebrum)
increase cleft palate
predispose fetuses to respiratory infections early in life