Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/137

Click to flip

137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Circulatory System Major Parts
Fluid
Channels
Pump
Fluid Function
transport medium
Channels Function
conduct blood throughout body
Pump Function
drives blood flow
Blood Vessels: Fluid, Channel, or Pump?
Channel
Blood: Fluid, Channel, or Pump?
Fluid
Heart: Fluid, Channel, or Pump?
Pump
Types of Circulatory Systems in Animals
Open Circulatory System
Closed Circulatory System
Open Circulatory System
- One or more hearts
- Have hemocoel
- Network of blood vessels
Closed Circulatory System
Confined blood in continuous vascular network with a pumping heart
Found in all vertebrates: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Closed Circulatory System
Aarthropods: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Open Circulatory System
Most Mollusks: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Open Circulatory System
Vertebrate Circulatory System Functions
- Transport O2 and CO2
- Distribution of nutrients
- Transport of waste
- Distribution of hormones
- Regulation of body temperature
- Protection of the body against blood loss and disease
Kinds of Muscular Chambers in Vertebrate Hearts
atria and ventricles
Atria Functions
- collects blood from body deposits
- Deposits blood into ventricles
Ventricles Functions
Contract and discharge blood into body
types of blood vessels that connect to human heart chambers
veins and arteries
Vein Function
carry blood to atria
Arteries Function
carry blood away from ventricles
Pumps in Human Heart
Right and Left
Right Pump Contains
Right Atrium and Right Ventricle
Left Atrium Contains
Left Atrium and Left Ventricle
Right Atrium Recieves
O2-poor blood from body by superior and inferior vena cavae
Right Ventricle Ejects
O2-poor blood into pulmonary arteries to be oxygenated by lungs
Left Atrium Recieves
O2-rich blood from lungs by pulmonary veins
Left Ventricle Ejects
O2-rich blood into aorta to be distibuted to body tissues
Recieves and Ejects O2-poor blood: Right Pump or Left Pump?
Right Pump
Recieves and Ejects O2-rich blood: Right Pump or Left Pump?
Left Pump
Atria contract and pump blood into
ventricles
Ventricles contract and pump blood into
arteries
Before the Cardiac Cycle Repeats, All Chambers
relax
Heart Chamber Contractions Generate
Blood Pressure that drives blood flow
Types of Blood Pressure
Systolic Pressure
Diastolic Pressure
Systolic Pressure
blood pressure during Ventriclar Contraction
Diastolic Pressure
blood pressure during Ventricular Relaxation
Heart Valves Function
insure one-way flow through heart
Types of Heart Valves
- Atrioventricular Valves
- Semilunar Valves
Atrioventricular Valve Function
allow blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles (but not the reverse)
Semilunar Valve Function
allow blood to enter the pulmonary artery and the aorta when the ventricles contract (and prevent it from returning as the ventricles relax)
Pacemaker Cells
- a cluster of specialized heart muscle cells that produce spontaneous electrical signals at a regular rate
Path of the Electrical Signals (from Pacemaker Cells)
- electrical signals are transmitted among the heart muscle cells
- stimulate the heart muscle cells to contract
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
- Primary Pacemaker
- Located in upper wall of the right atrium
Functions of Gap Junctions
Allow impulses to travel among atrial cells
Location of Gap Junctions
between cardiac muscle cells
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
- second pacemaker cell cluster
- small mass of specialized muscle cells
Location of Atrioventricular Node
in the floor of the right atrium
2 Major Components of Blood
Plasma and Cellular Components
Components of the Cellular Component of Blood
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Platelets
Plasma
fluid portion of blood
Components of the Plasma Component of Blood
90% water
hormones
nutrients
gases
salts
wastes
proteins
Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells
Function of Red Blood Cells
carry oxygen from lungs to tissues
Shape of Red Blood Cells
biconcave disk shape
Cause of Red Color in Red Blood Cells
hemoglobin pigment
Hemoglobin Pigment Make Up
- 4 polypeptide chains
- 4 iron-containing heme groups
Process that Turns Red Blood Cells Red
- each heme group binds to O2 in the lungs
- hemoglobin releases O2 at tissues
Red Blood Cell Formation
- formed in red bone marrow
- nucleus is removed during formation
Red Blood Cell Life Span
4 months
Death of Red Blood Cells
- 2 million die per second
- replaced by bone marrow
- removed by liver and spleen
- iron recyceld and used to form more hemoglobin
Kind of Feedback System that Controlls Red Blood Cell Formation
Negative Feedback
(When blood O2 levels are low, erythropoietin is released by kidneys)
Blood Types
A, B, AB, O
Rh-positive and Rh-negative
A, B, AB, and O Blood Types are based on
the types of glycoproteins on their plasma membranes
Rh Blood Types are based on
presence / absence of Rh factor protein on Red Blood Cells
Leukocytes
white blood cells
Function of White Blood Cells
protect body against disease
Lymphocytes
- can produce antibodies used in immunity
- white blood cell
Macrophages
- Mobile and amoeba-like
- Engulf foreign particles and bacteria
Platelets
pieces of megakaryocytes from red bone marrow
- pieces pinched off and enter circulation
Megakaryocytes
make up platelets
Function of Platelets
involoved in clotting
Life Span of Platelets
10-12 days
Blood Clot Make Up
- sticky fibrin protein threads
- platelets
- other cells
Blood Clot Formation
results from interaction among circulating plasma proteins (particularly thrombin and fibrinogen)
Blood flows through
blood vessels
Blood Flow
Arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins -> back to heart
Types of Blood Flow Circuits
Pulmonary and Systemic
Direction of Pulmonary Blood Flow Circuit
goes to lungs
Direction of Systemic Blood Flow Circuit
goes to the body (not towards the lungs)
Arteries
thick walled vessels with smooth muscle and elastic tissue to withstand high pressure
Tissue contained in Arteries
- smooth muscle and elastic tissue
- to withstand high pressure
Arterioles
- branch off arteries
- smaller in diameter then arteries
- help control distribution of blood flow
Capillaries
thin, single-cell thick for easy diffusion
Function of Capillaries
- allow exchange of materials between blood and body cells
- blood pressure drives fluid leakage out of capillaries and into spaces surrounding tissue cells (i.e. interstitial fluid)
Capillaries merge to form
larger venules
Venules merge to form
Veins
Veins contain
- smooth muscle and elastic tissue
- one-way valves to prevent backflow
veins have thinner walls then
arteries
How blood flows through veins
skeletal muscle contractions compress veins and drive blood movement towards heart
helps control distribution of blood flow: Arteries or Arterioles?
Arterioles
Tinies Vessels
Capillaries
Smaller in diameter: Arteries or Arterioles?
Arterioles
Contents of the Lymphatic System
- lymphatic vessels
- lymphatic capillaries
- lymph nodes
- thymus
- spleen
Functions of the Lymphatic System
- return excess interstitial fuid to bloodstream
- transport fats from small intestine to blood stream
- contribute to immunity
Function of Lymphatic Capillaries
collect excess interstitial fluid from tissues
Lymph
liquid in lymphatic system
Lymphatic capillary cells
- overlap
- act as one way valves
- allow fluid and particles to drain into lymphatic capillaries
Lymphatic Vessels structure is similar to
structure in veins (includes one way valves)
Muscle Contractions in Lymphatic Vessels
drive lymph flow (as with veins)
The Lymphatic System Returns
fluid to the blood
How Lymphatic System returns fluid to blood
collected by lymphatic system and deposited into general circulation where thoracic duct joins with vena cava
How much excess interstitial fluid is generated per day
3 to 4 liters
Lymph is composed of
fat-transporting particles
Lymph nodes
contain many macrophages and lymphocytes
Thymus
Important site of lymphocyte development
Spleen
- filters blood
- removes dead red blood cells
Plasma is ____% water
90%
Plasma is ____% of blood volume
55% - 60%
Blood is ____% cellular components
40% - 45%
Red Blood Cells make up ____% of all blood cells
99%
Red Blood Cells live about ____
4 months
Red Blood Cells die _____
2 million/second
White Blood Cells make up ____% of all blood cells
< 1%
Platelets live _______
10 - 12 days
Lymph is composed of ____% of fat-transporting particles
~1%
Crustaceans: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Open Circulatory System
Spiders: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Open Circulatory System
Insects: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Open Circulatory System
Snails: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Open Circulatory System
Clams: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Open Circulatory System
Some Invertebrates: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Closed Circulatory System
Earthworms: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Closed Circulatory System
Squid: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Closed Circulatory System
Octopuses: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Closed Circulatory System
Very Active Mollusks: Open Circulatory System or Closed Circulatory System?
Closed Circulatory System
Arthropods
Crustaceans, Spiders, Insects
Mollusks with Open Circulatory System
Snails, Clams
Mollusks with Closed Circulatory System
Very Active Mollusks (Squid, Octopuses)
Invertebrates with Closed Circulatory System
Earthworm
Hemocoel
- space within the body cavity
- in open cirulatory systems
Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the ______.
vena cava
left atrium
right atrium
left ventricle
right ventricle
left atrium
Which of the following statements is flase?
- A heart will stop beating when the nerves to the heart are severed
- Some cardiac muscle cells are self-excitatory
- The pacemaker of the heart is the SA node
- Cardiac muscles join end-to-end to allow rapid communication
A heart will stop beating when the nerves to the heart are severed
Which animal has a closed circulatory system?
- clam
- earthworm
- spider
- insect
earthworm
Erythrocytes originate in the _____.
- liver
- spleen
- yellow bone marrow
- red bone marrow
red bone marrow
When they are mature and circulating in the blood, which of the following have no nuclei?
- platelets
- leukocytes
- erythrocytes
- platelets & erythrocytes
platelets & erythrocytes
Which of the following statements is true?
- arteries carry only oxygenated blood
- the systemic circuit leaves the heart from the left ventricle
- the heart is able to pick up the oxygen it needs as the blood lows through it
- Capillaries empty blood into the arterioles
the systemic circuit leaves the heart from the left ventricle
3 of the 4 answers listed below are related by a common function. Select the exception.
- heart
- spleen
- thymus
- lymph node
heart