Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/31

Click to flip

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are bacteria?
-Prokaryotic
-Cell walls of peptidoglycan
-Plasma membranes similar to eukaryotes
-Distinct ribosomes
-RNA polymerase
What are Archaea?
-Prokaryotic
-Unicellular
-Cell walls of polysaccharides
-Ribosomes and RNA polymerase similar to eukaryotes
-No archaea cause disease
Bioremediation
Use of bacteria and archaea to degrade pollutants by fertilizing contaminated sites to encourage the growth of existing bacteria that degrade toxic compounds and adding specific species of bacteria to contaminated sites
Extremophiles
Live high-salt, high-temperature, low-temperature, or high-pressure habitats
-studied by astrobiologists
Cyanobacteria
-first organisms to perform oxygenic photosynthesis
Nitrogen Fixation
Eukaryotes and many bacteria and archaea must obtain nitrogen from ammonia or nitrate so they are fixed
Diseases caused by Bacteria
Lyme disease
Genital tract infection
Food poisoning (botulism)
Tetanus
Ear infections, meningitis
Ulcer
Leprosy
Tuberculosis
Gonorrhea
Acne
Infections of eye, ear, urinary tract
Food poisoning
Acne, boils, impetigo, toxic shock syndrome
Pneumonia
Strep throat, scarlet fever
Syphilis
Food poisoning
Plague
Enrichment cultures
Establishing a specific set of growing conditions and are used to isolate new types of bacteria and archaea
Direct sequencing
Documenting the presence of bacteria and archaea that cannot be grown in culture and studied in the lab
Gram Positive
-Purple
-Extensive peptidoglycan
Gram Negative
-Pink
-Some peptidoglycan and an outer membrane
Reproduction in Archaea and Bacteria
Fission- splitting of cell into two daughter cells

Conjugation- bacterial cells transfer plasmids (extracellular loops of DNA) uses conjugation tube
Phototroph
Use light energy. ATP is produced by photophosphorylation
Organotroph
Oxidize organic molecules. ATP is produced by cellular respiration or fermentation
Lithotroph
Oxidize inorganic molecules. ATP is produced by cellular respiration with the inorganic compound serving as electron donor
Autotroph
Manufacture own carbon-containing compounds
Heterotroph
Acquire carbon-containing compounds by consuming other organisms
Cellular respiration
Molecule with high potential energy serves as electron donor and is oxidized, whereas a molecule with low potential energy serves as a final electron acceptor and is reduced. Potential energy difference is converted into ATP
Fermentation
-Makes ATP without using electron transport chains
-No electron acceptor is reduced
-Redox reactions are internally balanced
Photosynthesis
-Phototrophs can use energy in light to synthesize ATP
-Can use different wavelengths
Calvin cycle
-Transform CO2 to organic molecules
Methanotrophs
Use methane as their primary electron donor and carbon source
Key Lineages of Bacteria
Some- Spirochaetes
Crunk- Chlamydiales
Hippies-
Can't-
Love-
Passionately
Spirochaetes
SOME
Mary
-Spiral
-Lyme disease
-Syphilis
-Leptospirosis
-Gram negative
Chlamydiales
CRUNK
Frannie
-Spherical
-Tiny
-Parasitic
-Chlamydia
High GC Gram Positive
HIPPIES
Pete
-Various shapes
-Mycelia
-Antibiotics
-Tuberculosis
-Leprosy
-Give soil its smell
Cyanobacteria
CAN'T
-First photosynthetic
-Marine and freshwater
-Some are colonial
-Live in associates with fungi, forming lichens
Low GC Gram Positive
LOVE
Ellyn
-Anthrax
-Botulism
-Tetanus
-Gangrene
-Strep throat
-Yogurt
Proteobacteria
PASSIONATELY
Sam
-Legionnaire’s disease
-Cholera
-Dysentery
-Gonorrhea
-Vinegars
-Gram negative
Crenarchoaeota
Only life-forms present in certain extreme environments, such as high-pressure, very hot, very cold, or very acidic environments
Euryarchaeota
Live in every conceivable habitat
-Include methanogens