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81 Cards in this Set

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a fracture that has not healed within an average amount of time
delayed union
formation and development of bone
osteogenesis
how many bones are in the human skeleton?
206
what bone classification includes the clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula
long bone
the shaft of the long bone
diaphysis
the end of the bone
epiphysis
what bone class. includes the bones of the hands and feet?
short bones
What is the patella an example of?
sesamoid bone or floating bones
largest sesamoid bone in the body?
patella
what bone class. includes the ribs, pelvic bones, scapula, and many skull bones?
flat bones
what bone class. includes vertebrae, the ossicles of the ear, and some of the skull bones?
irregular bones
very dense bone with few open spaces
compact bone
what is found mostly in the small spaces of the spongy or cancellous bone?
red marrow
What does yellow marrow consist of?
fat cells and connective tissue
serves as a supporting structure for blood vessels that nourish bone and serves to attach muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
periosteum
a knuckle shaped portion of bone, generally found in association with a joint
condyle
a rounded orifice in bone; a passageway for blood vessels and nerves
foramen
what muscle tissue is found in the internal organs?
smooth or involuntary
a joint that is immovable, such as the union of the major skull bones
synoarthrosis
a joint that is slightly movable, such as a vertebral joint
amphiarthrosis
a joint that is freely movable, such as the hip or shoulder
diarthrosis
consists of the articulating bone ends and the connective tissues that surround and bind them
synovial joint
what are the groups of joints?
ball and socket, hinge, conyloid, pivot, gliding, and saddle
contusions, sprains, dislocations, and penetrating wounds are what?
common injuries to joints
attaches bone to bone
ligaments
attaches muscle and bone
tendon
an arthrography is also called a what?
athrogram
during an arthrography, contrast dye is injected into what?
the joint space
records and analyzes the electrical activity in muscles
electromyography
what is the most widely used of available diagnostic imaging techniques?
x-rays
which fractures are always an emergency?
open or compound
what are the three phases of fracture healing?
the vascular phase, the metabolic phase, the mechanical phase
what is an emergent injury to the vascular system?
compartment syndrome
what is done to correct compartment syndrome?
immediate fasciotomy
bone healing
osteogenesis
fracture caused by disease such as metastatic disease occurring most often at the tumor site, where the bone is weak
pathologic fracture
the hands apply the forces pulling on the bone being realigned
manual traction
the bone ends are approximated and the held in place by an internally placed device, such as a rod or pin
closed reduction external fixation
percutaneous puncture
through the skin
this procedure requires both the internal manipulation of the bone fragments and the application of a stabilizing device (orthopedic implant)
open reduction internal fixation
what is the most popular material for casts?
plaster casting
fiberglass casts are great for who?
pediatric patients
complications that arise from fractured bones
hemorrhage, edema, and soft tissue injury
as surgery requires, legs may be what?
rotated, pulled into traction, or released
the patient's affected leg is held by what?
a traction device that is well padded to protect the foot
when should the surgeon be told how long the tourniquet has been inflated?
beginning every 30 minutes
what are power tools powered by?
electricity, battery, or nitrogen
the scrub should lightly irrigate the cutting blade with what?
saline solution
what instruments are used to place or remove orthopedic implants?
impactors, drivers, extractors, and screwdrivers
designed to fit over the head of the fixation device for its removal
extractors
used to smooth the surface of bone
rasps
used to form a hollow area in the bone
reamers
used to lift the periosteum from the surface of the bone
elevators
used to spoon out bits of bone from a curved area
curette
during an ORIF, surgeons describe the surface area of the thread in contact with bone, the what?
bite
what is the sequence of a screw placement?
size, drill, depth gauge, tap, screw
bone cement is also known as what?
polymethyl methacrylate
diagnostic visual exam of the joint
arthroscopy
SLAP stands for what?
superior labrum anterior-posterior
the rotator cuff comprises the what?
supraspinatus muscle, the subscapularis, the infraspinatus, and the teres minor
procedure used to correct a recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder
bankart
procedure used to repair dislocation of the anterior glenohumeral joint, even after physical therapy
bristow
surgical goal is the same as the bankart procedure
putty-platt
may be treated by placement of percutaneous pinning
displaced proximal humeral fractures
treated with long plates and screws or IM rods
mid-shaft humeral fractures
can greatly compromise the function of the elbow
distal humeral fractures
the cause of the MCP joint disease in adults is longstanding what?
rheumatic arthritis
De Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis presents with what?
painful wrist and thumb motion
a form of stenosing tenosynovitis
trigger finger
have a female preponderance, with up to 88% of adolescent patients being girls
bunions
a condition in which a toe has contracted at the proximal interphalangeal joint.
hammertoe
after an achilles tendon repair, the foot is placed in what position?
plantar flexed
surgical repair of a torn tendon
tenorrhaphy
involves fusion of the talocalcaneal, talonavicular, and calcaneocuboid joints
triple arthrodesis
used to stabilize closed or open femoral fractures
femoral rodding
performed to internally reduce a fracture under direct visualization of the fracture site
ORIF (Open Reduction Internal Fixation)
where is an osteotomy put?
femur
replacing only one side of the knee
unicompartmental
replacing the femoral and tibial components
bicompartmental
replacing the femoral, tibial, and patellar components
tricompartmental
degenerative joint disease, rheumatoid arthritis, sever hip fractures, and osteoarthritis are indications for a what?
arthroplasty