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56 Cards in this Set

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3 Parts of Feedback Systems
1. Control Center (with set point)
2. Sensor
3. Effector
Feedback Systems
Mechanisms of homeostatic control
Negative Feedback
Response to change is to counteract the change resulting in a return to the original condition
Positive Feedback
intensifies the original change when the need exists
- tend to be self limiting
Home Thermostat: Negative Feedback or Positive Feedback?
Negative Feedback
Labor: Negative Feedback or Positive Feedback?
Positive Feedback
Body Temperature: Negative Feedback or Positive Feedback?
Negative Feedback
Maintains Homeostasis
Body systems working together as a team
Heirarchy of Animal Organization
Cells -> Tissues -> Organs -> Organ Systems
Animal tissue is composed of
cells that are similar in structure and perform a specialized function
4 major categories of animal tissues
Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
Nervous tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Continuous sheets (membranes) that cover the outside body and line its cavities
2 Functions of Epithelial Tissue
1. Act as barrier against the movement of substances
2. Continually lost and replaced by cell division
Some epithelial tissues form
glands
Glands
clusters of cells that are specialized to relase substances
Exocrine glands
release secretions onto body surfaces using ducts
Endocrine glands
release secretions into blood
Sweat Gland: Exocrine Gland or Endocrine Gland?
Exocrine Gland
Sebaceous Gland: Exocrine Gland or Endocrine Gland?
Exocrine Gland
Adrenal Gland: Exocrine Gland or Endocrine Gland?
Endocrine Gland
Thyroid Gland: Exocrine Gland or Endocrine Gland?
Endocrine Gland
3 Functions of Connective Tissues
- Support and Bind other body tissues
- Secrete large quantities of extracellular substances among living cells
Connective Tissues secretions of extracellular substances often include
tough collagen protein fibers
3 Types of Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Secialized Connective Tissue
Loose Connective tissue
- attaches to epithelium to form membranes
- Contains protein fibers and syrup-like extracellular fluid
- Surrounds, cushions, and supports most organs
Fibrous Connective Tissue
contains densely packed collagen fibers that provide strength
Examples of Fibrous Connective Tissue
Tendons
Ligaments
Tendons
Connect bones to muscles
Ligaments
Connect bones to bones
5 types of Specialized Connective Tissue
Cartilage
Bone
Adipose Tissue
Blood
Lymph
Cartilage
Widely spaced cells surrounded by collagen and thick gel-like matrix
functions of cartilage
support
friction reduction
shock absorption
Bone
cells arranged in concentric circles surrounded by clacium phosphate deposits
- blood vessels penetrate bone
Blood vessels penetrate
bone
Adipose Tissue
collective term for fat
functions of adipose tissue
energy storage
insulation
blood
tissue composed of cells suspended in extracellular fluid
cellular portion of blood
red blood cells
white blood cells
platelets
functions of blood
carries oxygen
provides immuniy
involoved in clotting
Lymph
composed of fluid leaked out of blood at capillary blood vessels
Lymph enters
lymphatic vessels and is reintroduced into circulation
Muscle Tissue
contract (shorten) when stimulated
Types of Muscle Tissue
Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
-located in heart
-spontaneously active
-not under conscious control
Smooth Muscle
- located in tubular organs
- produces slow sustained, involuntary contractions
Skeletal Muscle
- produces voluntary contractions usually to move skeleton
- cells are cylindrical muscle fibers
Nerve Tissue functions
enables animals to sense and respond to the world
Nerve Tissue examples
- brain
- spinal cord
- nerves that travel to all parts of the body
Types of Nerve Tissue
Neurons
Glial Cells
Neuron functions
transmit electric signals
Glial Cells function
surround, support, and electrically insulate neurons
Organs
two or more types of tissues that work together
Organ Systems
two or more individual organs that work together, performing a common function
Which of these is not connective tissue?
cartilage
blood
outer layer of skin
fat
outer layer of skin
The kidney is an example of an organ system: True or False?
False
Blood is a type of connective tissue: True or False?
True