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68 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 Performance Management rules?
1) Put it in writing
2) Have effective behavioral consequences
3) Performance not monitored once a week turns to Jello
4) Specify the contingencies clearly
Rule #1 Put it in writing
The client writes down a list of tasks they're going to do and gives it to their performance contractor
Rule #2 Have effective behavioral consequences
Outcomes contingent on completing the contract

e.g. some of dissertation credit will turn to NC; checks to American Nazi Party
Rule #3 Performance not monitored once a week turns to Jello
Weekly monitoring is a deadline
Rule #4 Specify the contingencies clearly
Sid's was the rule-governed analog to avoidance of loss
Performance Contract (behavioral contract or contingency contract)
-A written rule statement describing
-the desired or undesired behavior,
-the occasion when the behavior should or should not occur, and
-the added outcome for that behavior
What were the results of Sid's performance contract with Juke?
His contract was renewed and he passed his oral defense over his dissertation; he got his PhD
What are the two major types of psychological control that the environment exerts over our behavior?
1) Operant control
2) Respondent control
Operant control
control by the immediate consequences of our actions
Respondent control
control by the immediately preceding eliciting stimuli
What does rule control explain?
The influence of indirect-acting contingencies
How does the statement of a rule act as an establishing operation?
It establishes noncompliance with the rule as an aversive condition
What is the direct acting contingency that results from effective rules?
An escape contingency based on the learned aversive condition that results from stating the rule
The Mythical Cause of Poor Self-Management
-Poor self-management occurs
-because immediate outcomes control our behavior
-better than delayed outcomes do
Why do people have problems following rules with small, but cumulative outcomes?
Because the immediate outcome for each response is too small to reinforce or punish that behavior, although the cumulative impact may be large;

e.g. ice cream, credit card
The improbable outcome
it is hard to follow rules specifying low-probability outcomes;

e.g. seat belt (accident low prob), safe sex (AIDS low prob)
Rules that are easy to follow
-Describe outcomes that are
-both sizable
-and probable.
-The delay isn't crucial.
Rules that are hard to follow
-Describe outcomes that are either
-too small (though often of cumulative significance)
-or too improbable.
-The delay isn't crucial.
Basic principles of behavior analysis
-reinforcement
-punishment
-stimulus control

Cannot be explained by other more basic principles
Higher-order principles of behavior analysis
principles stating the conditions that make rules hard and easy to follow
What two types of contingencies do rules that are easy to follow describe?
1) Direct-acting contingencies
2) Indirect-acting contingencies
What are 3 characteristics of outcomes of direct-acting contingencies?
1) Immediate
2) Probable
3) Sizable
What are 3 characteristics of outcomes of indirect-acting contingencies?
1) Delayed
2) Probable
3) Sizable
The Real Cause of Poor Self-Management
-Poor self-management results from
-poor control by rules describing
-outcomes that are either
-too small (though often of cumulative significance)
-or too improbable.
-The delay isn't crucial.
Why do improbable and small outcomes often fail to control our behavior?
The rules describing the contingencies are hard to follow
Why are the rules hard to follow?
They don't act as effective establishing operations; their statement doesn't establish a sufficiently aversive condition that we would want to escape or avoid
Why do we miss deadlines?
Failure to meet deadlines is a problem of small and cumulative outcomes resulting from the difficulty of estimating the time needed to complete large tasks before delayed deadlines
What is the rule to avoid missing deadlines?
It always takes 2x as long as you had planned to perform a task, even when taking this rule into consideration
When do we need performance management?
When the natural contingencies do not effectively support the appropriate behavior
What are "natural" contingencies?
Automatic, intrinsic, nonprogrammed

Those present in work, at home, at school, in life;

they are not necessarily correct
"Appropriate behavior" does what two things?
1) Increases the individual and the group's long-range contact with beneficial conditions
2) Decreases contact with harmful conditions
How do we manage the performance of nonverbal clients?
We add or remove direct-acting contingencies to supplement the ineffective natural contingencies;

e.g. addition of direct-acting punishment procedure with bruxism patients
How do we manage the performance of verbal clients?
Add indirect-acting contingencies to the ineffective natural contingencies (i.e. replace rules that are hard to follow with rules that are easy to follow);

may also add or remove direct-acting contingencies
Why do rules tating or implying deadlines work?
Because stating rules establishes noncompliance with the rule as a sufficiently aversive condition;
escape from the aversive condition reinforces compliance
The three-contingency model of performance management
-The three crucial contingencies are: the ineffective natural contingency,
-the effective, indirect-acting performance-management contingency,
-and the effective, direct-acting theoretical contingency
Which type of deadlines should rules specify?
Fairly immediate deadlines, though they can specify delayed outcomes
What was Sid's problem?
That the progress he would make in any given hour of writing was small compared to the total progress he needed to make;

starting to write didn't reduce the aversiveness enough to reinforce the escape response of writing
Why does performance contracting within the research supervisory system work?
Because it produces rules that make it clear when you're dangerously off task;

and those clear rules with their probable, sizable outcomes are effective establishing operations that support the reinforcement of getting on task
Which type of outcomes should performance management contracts designed to increase or maintain behavior specify? (3)
1) Sizable and
2) probable
3) though possibly delayed
Why did Malott not swim with the sharks like the others?
Because even though the probability of a shark attack was low, the significance (even if only imaginary) was high
Why did Malott not get the umbrella even though it was going to rain?
Because even though the probability of rain was high, the significance of getting rained on was low
Why can't we built a world free of aversive control?
Because the physical world is full of aversive control and deadlines
What three things cannot be used to realistically escape the need for aversive control?
1) added unlearned reinforcers
2) added learned reinforcers
3) built-in reinforcement contingencies
Ch 25 Flashcards:

Pay for Performance
PAY FOR PERFORMANCE
What was the intervention for the fifth grade class that didn't like writing?
A point for each word and the points can later be used to buy things (such as art-and-crafts time)
What type of behavior was the intervention for the fifth grade writers?
Rule-governed behavior
What three factors should make you suspect control by the rule describing the contingency and not direct control?
1) Statement of the rule
2) Performance changes as soon as the rule is stated and before the person has experienced reinforcement
3) The contingency fails the 60 second test (the outcome follows the behavior by more than 60 seconds)
The it-is-probably-rule-control rule
-It is probably rule control, if
-the person knows the rule,
-the outcome is delayed, or
-the performance changes as soon as the person hears the rule
What wouldn't most effective, indirect-acting, performance-management contingencies not work without?
Deadlines
What is the points-for-words contingency?
Analog to avoidance of the loss of the opportunity to receive a reinforcer
What is true of essentially all analog contingencies that increase or maintain performance?
They're all analogs to avoidance (because they have deadlines)
The analog to avoidance principle
-If an indirect-acting contingency
-is to increase or maintain performance,
-it should be an analog to avoidance
The deadline principle
-If an indirect-acting contingency
-is to increase or maintain performance,
-it should involve a deadline
How did the statement of the rule control the students' behavior?
The statement of the rule established noncompliance with the rule as an aversive condition
What was the ineffective natural contingency for the students?
Before: The student has poor writing skills
Behavior: the student writes a single word
After: The student has slightly better writing skills
What was the effective, indirect-acting performance management contingency?
S^D (Deadline): End of class
Before: The student will lose the chance to get a point
Behavior: The student writes a single word
After: The student won't lose the chance to get the point
What was the effective, direct-acting, theoretical contingency?
Before: The student has aversive thoughts about losing the chance
Behavior: The student writes a single word
After: The student has fewer aversive thoughts
What type of deadlines make the world go round?
Immediate
How was the teenage aides performance improved at the rec center?
-specify performance (they were given a detailed description of each of the tasks)
-given frequent feedback (whether they were doing what they should be doing and whether they were where they should be)
-threatened firing

WHAT REALLY WORKED:

Pay for performance (paid for hours WORKED, from HOURS worked)
Pay for performance
-Pay is contingent on
-specific achievements
People may not do what it takes to win the prize ...
but that doesn't mean they don't value that prize
How did they increase attendance in the GED program for the high school drop outs?
First they paid them by the hour for attending (but they were just goofing off)

Then they required the student to attend class and perform well (complete a mutually agreed upon number of workbook items) to earn their money
What do structured environments do?
Help people attain evasive goals
What was the bank's pay for performance set up?
They paid proof operators individual bonuses for each check accurated proofed;

when proof operators would leave the job, the other operators asked to be able to pick up the slack (this reduced the number of workers and overtime, without having a high turnover rate)
What are 9 benefits of pay for performance?
1) More productivity
2) Higher quality
3) Less waste
4) More profit
5) Fewer absences
6) Less turnover
7) Better pay
8) Happier employees
9) Happier employers
Why are ineffective natural contingencies ineffective?
Because the outcomes are either too small (though of cumulative significance) or too improbable
Why are effective, indirect-acting, performance management contingencies effective?
Because the outcomes are sizable and probable
Why are effective direct-acting theoretical contingencies effective?
Because they establish noncompliance with the rule as an aversive condition (causes escape)