Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A politics of adaptation to things as they are.
Louis Napoleon
Emperor of France (1852–1871). A nephew of Napoleon I, he led the Bonapartist opposition to Louis Philippe.
Crimean War
War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, France, and Sardinia.
A city of southern Ukraine in Crimea on the Black Sea, west of Yalta.
Alexander II
Czar of Russia (1855–1881) who emancipated the serfs in 1861.
Florence Nightengale
British nurse who organized (1854) and directed a unit of field nurses during the Crimean War and is considered the founder of modern nursing.
Camillo di Cavour
Italian political leader who was premier of Sardinia and assisted in the unification of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.
Guiseppe Girabaldi
Italian general who led 1,000 volunteers in the capture of Sicily and Naples. His conquest led to the formation of the kingdom of Italy.
Victor Emmanuel II
Italian king (1861–1878). He completed the unification of Italy by acquiring Venice (1866) and Rome (1870).
Free-trade area throughout much of Germany established in 1834 under Prussian leadership.
Otto von Bismarck
Creator and first chancellor of the German Empire (1871–1890).
Schleswig and Holstein
The Danes ceded them to Prussia and Austria in 1864, and in 1866 both areas became part of Prussia.
Bundesrat and Reichstag
The parliaments of the German Empire.
Ems telegram
Telegram sent to Otto von Bismarck and subsequently published by him in an edited version designed to offend the French government.
An elective council responsible for the local administration of a provincial district in czarist Russia.
Alexander Herzen
As a student at the University of Moscow, he joined a socialist group, for which he was exiled to work in the provincial bureaucracy.
A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite.
Whigs and Tories
British political parties that were opposed to each other.
Benjamin Disraeli
British politician and novelist. He served as prime minister and was instrumental in extending the power and scope of the British Empire.
Karl Marx
Founder of modern communism.
G. W. F. Hegel
German idealist philosopher who interpreted nature and human history and culture as expressions of a dialectical process.
Friedrich Engels
German social theorist who collaborated with Karl Marx on The Communist Manifesto (1848) and numerous other works.
International Working Men's Association
An international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade unions.
Louis Pasteur
French chemist who founded modern microbiology and developed vaccines for anthrax, rabies, and chicken cholera.
Michael Faraday
British physicist and chemist who discovered electromagnetic induction (1831).
Charles Darwin
The naturalist who came up with the theory of evolution.
Joseph Lister
British surgeon. He demonstrated in 1865 that carbolic acid was an effective antiseptic agent.
Elizabeth Blackwell
First woman to receive a medical degree.
Auguste Comte
French philosopher known as the founder of positivism. He also established sociology as a systematic study.
Gustave Flaubert
His works include the novel Madame Bovary (1857) and the short story “A Simple Heart” (1877).
Jean-Francois Millet
A painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France. He is noted for his scenes of peasant farmers.
Franz Liszt
A nineteenth-century Hungarian composer and pianist known for his often fiery style of composition and performance.
Richard Wagner
German composer of Der Ring des Nibelungen