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### 23 Cards in this Set

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 Cause and Effect A relationship between two or more variables in which one variable influences or explains the change in the other variables Correlation When two or more variables change in value together in teh same or opposite direction Dependent Variable A variable whose value is believed to depend upon or to be caused by another variable. Experiments Carefully designed and controlled attempts, usually conducted in a laboratory, to determine the effect of specific variables on a particular dependent variable or on the behavior or attitudes of the experiment's subject. Field Research The study of social life in its natural setting Hypothesis A statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables Independent Variable A variable that causes or produces change in the value of another (dependent) variable Negative Correlation A relationship between two variables such that in the majority of cases, when one variable increases in value, the decreases in value. Operationalize To specify how the variable is to be measured. Participant Observation A research method in which the researcher systematically ovserves people while actually joining with them in their activities Perfect Positive Correlation A relationship between two variables such that they both change together and in teh same direction in all cases Population The group of people to whom the results of research are applicable Positive Correlation A relationship between two variables such that they both change together in the same direction in the majority of cases Qualitative Research Research that emphasizes the uncovering of subjective meaning and ways eople interact in everyday life through the use of discriptive, rather than numerical, data Quantitive Research research that emphasizes the statistical analysis of numerical data Random Sampling Process by which each member of a population of interest has the same chance of being selected for participation in the study. Reliability Consistency in the measurement of a variable over time; the quality of measurement of the variable that suggest that the same results and data would be collected in repeated observations. Representative Sample A subgroup of the population that accurately reflects the composition of the population as well as the distribution of important characteristics and attributes within the population Sample A subgroup of the population from which the researcher will collect data Secondary Analysis of Existing Data The use of data intially collected by other researchers to analyze a topic of interest. Validity The extent to which a measure actually measures what it is intended to measure. Deductive Model begins with a general theory or set of hypotheses and then moves on to the collection of appropriate data to test the theory or hypotheses Inductive (grounded) Model Begins with specific observations, upon which a theoretical account is then fashioned that accounts for and explains the observations and their meanings.