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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acid
a substance that provides H+ ions when dissolved in water
Anion
a negatively charged atom or group of atoms
Atom
the smallest particle that retains the chemical properties of an element
Atomic mass
the weighed average mass of an element’s atoms
Atomic mass unit (amu)
a convenient unit of mass; 1/12th the mass of a 12-6 C atom
Atomic number (Z)
the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus
Base
a substance that provides OH- ions when dissolved in water
Cathode ray
the visible glow emitted when an electric potential is applied between two electrodes in an evacuated chamber
Cation
a positively charged atom or group of atoms
Chemical bond
the forces that hold atoms together in chemical compounds
Chemical equation
a format for writing a chemical reaction, listing reactants on the left, products on the right, and an arrow between them.
Chemical reaction
the transformation of one substance into another
Covalent bond
a bond that occurs when two atoms share several (usually two) electrons
Element
a fundamental substance that can’t be chemically changed or broken down into anything simpler
Homogenous mixture
a mixture having a constant composition
Chemical formula
a format for listing the number and kind of constituent elements in a compound
Electron
a negatively charged, fundamental atomic particle
Heterogenous mixture
a mixture having regions with differing compositions
Ion
a charged atom or group of atoms
Ionic bond
a bond that results from a transfer of one or more electrons between atoms
Ionic solid
a solid whose constituent particles are ions ordered into a regular 3-D arrangement held together by ionic bonds
Isotope
atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers
Law of definite proportions
different samples of a pure chemical substance always contain the same proportion of elements by mass
Law of mass conservation
mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions
Law of multiple proportions
the mass ratios are small, whole-number multiples of one another when two elements combine in different ways to form different substances
Mass number (A)
the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Mixture
a blend of two or more substances in some random proportion
Molecule
the unit of matter that results when two or more atoms are joined by covalent bonds
Nucleus
the central core of an atom consisting of protons and neutrons
Oxoacid
an acid that contains oxygen in addition to hydrogen and another
Neutron
a neutral, fundamental atomic particle in the nucleus of atoms
Oxoanion
an anion in which an atom is combined with oxygen
Polyatomic ions
a charged, covalently bonded group of atoms
Proton
a positively charged, fundamental atomic particle in the nucleus of atoms
Structural formula
a representation that shows the specific connections between atoms in a molecule
Chemical compound
a pure substance that is formed when atoms of two or more different elements combine and create a new material with properties completely unlike those of its constituent elements
Heterogeneous mixture
a mixture having regions with differing compositions
Neutron
a neutral, fundamental atomic particle in the nucleus of atoms