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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
neurons
cells specialized for communicating info, the basic building blocks of the nervous system.3 parts: cell body, axon and dendrites
synapse
The junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell
neurotransmitters
chemicals released by neurons that carry info across the synapses
endorphines
naturally occuring substances that closely resemble mophine in chemical structure act as neurotransmitters, stimulating specialized receptor sites
central nervous system
the brain cna sinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the portion of te nervous system that connects intercal organs, glands, voluntary muscles to the cns
somatic nervous system
conects the brian and spinal cord to voluntary muscles
automatic nervous stystem
connects internal organs, glands, involuntary muscles to the cns
sympathic nervous system
readies the body for expendire of enegry
parasympathic nervous system
readies the body for restoration of energy
endocrine system
varitey of glands, that release hormones directly into the blood steam
hormones
substances secreated by endocrine glands that regulate a wide range of bodily processes
pituitary gland
releases hormones to regulate other glands and several basic biological processes
adrenal galnd
to help the body handle emergenices by increasing heart rate, blood presure or blood sugar levels
medulla
structure in the brain stem concerned with the regulation of vital bodily functions such as breathing and heart rate
pons
a portion of te brain stem throughwhich sensory and motor info passes which contains structures relating to sleep, arousal and teh regulation of muscle tone and cardaic reflexes
cerebellum
a part of the brain stem concerned with the regulation of basic motor activites
midbrain
a part of th brain stem containing primitive centers for vision and hearing. plays a role int the regulation of visual reflexes
hypothelemus
a small structure deep with in the brain that plays a role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system and of several forms of motived behavior such as eating and aggression
amygdala
a limbic system sturcture involved in aspects of emotional control and fromation of emotional memories
thalamus
a sturcture deep within the brain that recieves sensory input form otjer portions of the nervous system and then transmittes this info to the cerebral hemispheres and other parts of the brain
limbic system
a structre dee within the brain that plays a rol in the emotional reactiosn and behavior
hippocampus
a sturcture of the limbic system that plays a role in the formation of certain types of memories
celebral cortex
the outer covering of th cerebal hemispheres
frontal lobe
lies infront of the central fissure
parietal lobe
lying behind the central fissue, that plays a major role in the skin senses; touch, temutare, pressure
occipital lobe
involved in vision
temporal lobe
involved in hearing
lateralization of function
specialization of the 2 hemishperes of the brian for the performance of different functions
corpus callosum
a band of nerve fibers connecting the 2 hemishperes of the brain
heredity
biolocally determined characteristics passed from parents to their offsprng
genes
segments of dna that serve as biological blueprints, shaping development and all basic bodily processes
chromosomes
threadine structures containing gentic material, found in nearly every cell of the body
sensation
input about the physical world provided by our sensory receptors
perception
the process through which we select, rganiz, interpret input from our sensory receptors
transduction
the translation of a physical energy into electrical signals by speiclies receptor cells
absolute threshold
the smallest amount of a stimules that we can detect 505 of the time
difference threshold
the amount by which 2 stimuli must differ inorder to be just noticeable different
subliminal perception
the presumed ability to perceive a stimulus that is below the threshold for conscious experince
sensory adaptaion
reduced sensitivity to unchanging stimuli over time
localization
the ability for our auditory system to determine the direction of a sound source
gate contro theory
the theory of pain suggestion that the spinal cord contains a mechanism that can block transmission of pain to the brain
kinesthesia
the sense that gives us info aboout the location of our body parts with respcet to 1 other and allows us to perform movement
vestibular sense
our sense of balance
figure-ground realtionship
our tendency to divide the perceptual world into 2 distint parts; discrete figures and th backgorund against which tyhey stand out
circadian rhythgms
cyclic changes in bodily processed occuring with a single day
automatic processing
processing of info with miniumaal conscious awareness
controlled processing
processing of info with relatively high levels of conscious awareness
hypnosis
an iteraction between 2 persons in which 1 induces changes in the behavior, feelings, cognitions of the other through suggestions. involves expectations on the part of the subjext and their attemps to confrom to scoail roles
physiological dependnce
occurs when the need for the drug is based on organic factors, drug addiction
psychological depence
strong desires to contine using te drug evne though the body dosn't need it
tolerance
habituation to a drug, causing larger and larger doses to be needed ro procue effects
depressants
drugs that reduce activity in the nervous st=ystem and slow thd body and cognitve processes
stimulants
drugs tha increase activity in the nervous system
opiates
drugs tha induce dreamy, relaxed sate and insome people intense feeling sof pleasure by stimulating special recepor sites in the brian
psychedlics
alter sensory perception
hallucinogens
generate sensory perceptions that has no external stumuli
gateway hypothesis
the view that use of marijuna is uniquely linked to the use of other drugs
circadian rhythgms
cyclic changes in bodily processed occuring with a single day
automatic processing
processing of info with miniumaal conscious awareness
controlled processing
processing of info with relatively high levels of conscious awareness
hypnosis
an iteraction between 2 persons in which 1 induces changes in the behavior, feelings, cognitions of the other through suggestions. involves expectations on the part of the subjext and their attemps to confrom to scoail roles
physiological dependnce
occurs when the need for the drug is based on organic factors, drug addiction
psychological depence
strong desires to contine using te drug evne though the body dosn't need it
tolerance
habituation to a drug, causing larger and larger doses to be needed ro procue effects
depressants
drugs that reduce activity in the nervous st=ystem and slow thd body and cognitve processes
stimulants
drugs tha increase activity in the nervous system
opiates
drugs tha induce dreamy, relaxed sate and insome people intense feeling sof pleasure by stimulating special recepor sites in the brian
psychedlics
alter sensory perception
hallucinogens
generate sensory perceptions that has no external stumuli
gateway hypothesis
the view that use of marijuna is uniquely linked to the use of other drugs