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27 Cards in this Set

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histone
a small protein with a high proportion of positively charged amino acids that binds to the negatively charged DNA and plays a key role in its chromatin structure
nucleosome
the basic beadlie unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes consisting of a segment of DNA wound around a protein core composed of 2 copies of each of 4 types of histone
heterochromatin
nontranscribed eukaryotic chromatin that is so highly compacted that it is visible with a light microscope during interphase
euchromatin
the more open, unraved form of eukaroytic chromatin that is available for transcription
repetitive DNA
nucleotide sequences usually noncoding that are present in many copies in a eukaryotic genome. the repeated present in may be short and arranged tandemly (in series) or long and dispersed in the genome
satellite DNA
original name for repetive DNA isolated by cutting genomic DNA before centrifuging
Alu elements
a family of similar sequences about 300 nucleotides long
multigene factor
a collection of identical or very similar genes
pseudogenes
DNA segments very similar to real genes but which do not yield functional products
gene amplification
the selective synthesis of DNA which results in multiple copies of a single gene thereby enhancing expression
retransposons
transposable elements that move with in a genome by means of a RNA intermediate, a transcript of the retransposonon DNA
immunoglobulions
1 of the class of proteins comprising antibodies
cellular differentiation
the structural and functional divergence of cells as tehy become specialized during a multicellular org's development; dependent on the control of gene expression
DNA methylation
the addition of methyl groups (-CH3) to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as long term control of gene expression
histone acetylation
the attchment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins
genomic imprinting
th parental effect on gene expression whereby identical alleles have different effects on offspring depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or the sperm
control elements
segments of noncoding DNA that help regulate transcription of a gene by binding proteins calle dtranscription factors
enhancers
DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nereby genes
activator
a transcription factor that binds to an enhancer and stimulates transcription of a gene
DNA binding domain
a part of the 3 dimensional structure of a transcription factor that binds to DNA
alternative RNA splicing
type of regulation at RNA processing level where different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcrip depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons or introns
proteasomes
griant protein complex that recognizes and destorys proteins tagged for elimination by the small protein ubiquitin
oncogenes
a gene found in viruses or as part of a normal genome that is involved in triggering cancerous characteristics
proto oncogenes
a normal cellular gene corresponding to an onocogene; gene with a potential to cause cancer but requires some alternation to become oncogene
tumor suppressor gene
gene whose protein proudcts inhibit cell divions there by preventing uncontrolled cell growth (cancer)
ras gene
gene codes for ras protein, a G protein that relays growth signals from a growth factor receptor on the plasma membrane to a cascade of protein kinases that results in stimulation of cell cycle; most have point mutation that leads to hyperacterive version of Ras protein that results in excessive cell division
p53 gene
guardian angel of genome that is expressed when cell's DNA is damaged, product functions as transcription factor for several genes