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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Key difference between endocrine and nervous system in regards to homeostasis?
Endocrine - long term maintenance
Nervous - short term
Direct Communication occurs between _______, is ____ and very ____ and entails the exchange of ions and molecules through ______.
two cells of the same type
highly specialized and very rare
gap junctions
Paracrine Communication is the most ________ form of intercellular communication, from cell to cell, with the same ____ and uses ______ signals.
common
tissue
chemical
Endocrine communication releases ______ into the ______ and alters the ______ activities of many _________ simultaneously
hormones
blood stream
tissues and organs
Synaptic communication is neurotransmitter communication between a _____ and a ______.
neuron
effector (neuron, muscle, gland)
The hypothalamus produces:
ADH, OXT and regulatory hormones
The pituitary produces:
ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH and MSH
Thyroid gland produces:
thyroxine, triiodothyronine, calcitonin
Suprarenal medulla produces:
epinephrine, norepinephrine
Suprarenal cortex produces:
cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, androgens
Pineal gland produces:
melatonin
Parathyroid gland produces:
parathyroid hormone
Heart produces:
atrial natriuretic hormone
brain natriuretic hormone
(reduces blood pressure by acting as a vasodilator, secretion of sodium via urine, reduces blood volume)
Kidney produces:
erythropoetin
calcitriol
Adipose tissues produces:
leptin
Hormones can be divided into these three groups
amino acid derivatives, peptide hormones, lipid derivatives
Which ones circulate freely?
peptide hormones
(PEPpy people like to run around around freely)
Which ones bind to transport proteins?
Lipid derivatives
(because fatties like to ride the bus--lipids on transport proteins)
Examples of amino acid derivatives:
tyrosine, thyroid hormones, catecholamines (E, NE, D)
tryptophan (melatonin, serotonin)
Peptide hormones are made up of:
glycoproteins, short polypeptides, proteins
Longest peptide hormone?
Glycoproteins (>200 aminos long))
Glycoproteins include ______ and the gonadotropins ______ and ____
TSH
LH
FSH
Short polypeptides include _____ and ______
ADH
OXT
Proteins include _____ and ____
GH
PRL
Peptide hormones are the most diverse. T or F?
T
Lipid derivates include:
steroid hormones
eicosanoids
Steroid hormones include _______, ________ and ______.
Sex hormones
corticosteroids
calcitriol
Eicosanoids are ______ factors that affect _____ and _____ processes.
paracrine
cellular factors and enzygmatic processes
Examples of eicosanoids:
prostaglandins, leukotrienes
Membrane acting hormones include:
Catecholamines, peptide hormones, eicosanoids
Nuclear hormones include
thyroid hormones and steroid hormones
Plasma membrane hormones are not ______ - soluble, obviously
lipid
Membrane hormones act _____ and via ______ messengers
indirectly
second
Eiconosanoids are lipid-soluble. Where do they bind?
The inner surface of the plasma membrane.
G protein
link between first messenger and second messenger; uses GTP
Rx tend to target these receptors
anterior lobe of pituitary
adenohypophysis
posterior lobe of pituitary
neurohypophysis
What is the median eminence?
Swelling near attachment of the infundibulum. This is where the hypothalamic neurons release regulatory factors.
Pancreatic Islets
Islets of Langerhans
Alpha cells of pancreas
glucagon
Beta cells of pancreas
insulin
Delta cells of pancreas
peptide hormone identical to GH-IH
F cells of pancreas
pancreatic polypeptide
Hormone associated with following places of adrenal cortex:
zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
zona reticularis
-(mineralocorticoids) aldosterone,
-(glucocorticoids) hydrocortisone, cortisol, corticosterone
-androgens
What does aldosterone does?
-Targets the kidneys
-Sodium retention, potassium loss
-Stimulated by angiotensin II, elevated plasma potassium or loss of plasma sodium
What do the glucocorticoids do?
-amino acid secretion from skeletal muscle, lipid secretion from adipose tissue
-liver formation of glucose and glucagon
-anti-inflammatory effects
-peripheral utilization of lipids
What do androgens do here?
Important for muscular growth, bone growth and hemogenesis in women and children
Medulla secretes what?
catecholamines (increase cardiac activity, blood pressure, glycogen breakdown, blood glucose levels; releases lipids by adipose tissue)
What is the stimulating hormone for the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis?
ACTH
Where does ACTH come from?
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Which catecholamine accounts for 75 to 80% of medulla secretion
epinephrine
What does the suprarenal cortex store?
lipids
Two key parts of thyroid gland?
C cells
Follicular epithelium
The follicular epithelium produces what two hormones?
Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothyrodine (T3)
Which hormone stimulates the follicular epithelium?
TSH, duh. From the ant. pit.
C Cells release _____
calcitonin
Calcitonin does what?
Reduce blood concentrations of Ca 2+
Parathyroid glands release PTH, which....
Increases blood concentrations of Ca2+
Four effects of PTH
1. Stimulates osteoclasts
2. Inhibits osteoblasts
3. Reduces urinary loss (via reabsorptions of Ca)
4. Facilitates calcitriol production at kidneys
Which of the thyroid hormones is the active hormone?
T3
Triiodothyronine
What is the main purpose of glucagon?
To mobilize energy reserves
How does glucagon mobilize energy reserves?
1. Lipolysis
2. Glycogenolysis
3. Gluconeogenesis
Basophil
Non-phagocytic
Induce inflammation through heparin and histamines
Less than 1%
Non-Specific Defense
Eosinophil
Primary - secrete toxic compounds
Secondary - phagocytic
Attack parasites and bacteria
Counteract inflammatory affects
Neutrophils
Most common
Phagocytic
First to arrive at infection site
Release leukotrienes, defensins, and prostaglandins
leukotriene
attract phagocytes
prostaglandins
induce inflammation
Monocyte
phagocytic
macrophage
attracts fibroblasts to promote scar formation
activates lymphocytes
lymphocytes
specific immune response
20-30#
bidirectional
T Cells
B Cells
NK Cells
T Cell
cell-mediated immunity
B Cells
humoral immunity (secrete antibodies while in plasma)
NK cells
cancer destroyer