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### 120 Cards in this Set

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 A disturbance in matter that carries energy from one place to another. Mechanical wave The ability to do work Energy Mechanical waves require _____ to travel through matter Material through which a wave travels medium 3 mediums are... solids, liquids, and gasses In a wave pool, what is the medium? Water Waves travel through a rope when you shake one end of it. What is the medium? The rope When is a mechanical wave created? When a source of energy causes a vibration to travel through a medium. Mechanical waves are classified... by the way they move through a medium 3 types of mechanical waves transverse, longitudinal, and surface The highest point of a (transverse) wave above the rest position crest the lowest point below the rest position (transverse) trough A transverse wave carries energy in a direction ________ to the up and down motion of the medium. perpendicular an area where the particles in a medium are spaced close together (longitudinal) compression area where the particles in a medium are spread out (longitudinal) rarefaction a wave in which the vibration of the medium is parallel to the direction the wave travels longitudinal Longitudinal waves produced by earthquakes that can travel through earth- scientist use them to map earth's unseen interior. P waves (aka primary waves) Most familiar kind of surface wave Ocean waves A wave that travels along a surface seperating two media surface wave any motion that repeats at regular time intervals periodic motion A complete motion that returns to its starting pt (the time required for one cycle) period For an ocean wave, the period is the time between... two successive crests # of complete cycles in a given time frequency For a wave, the _____ is the number of wave cycles that pass a point in a given time frequency Frequency is measured in.. cycles per second, or hertz (Hz) A wave's frequency equals.. the frequency of the vibrating source producing the wave the dist. betwn a point on one wave and the same point on the next cycle of the wave Wavelength For a transverse wave, wavelength is measured between adjacent crests or adjacent troughs For a longitudinal wave, wavelength is the distance btwn adjacent compressions or rarefactions. Increasing freqency of a wave _____ its wavelength. decreases Speed = wavelength x frequency The speed of a wave can change if it enters a new medium, or if variables such as pressure and temperature change If you assume that waves are traveling at a constant speed, then.. wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency. A wave with lower frequency has ____ wavelength. longer Max displacement of the medium from its rest position Amplitude The amplitude of a transverse wave is... the distance from the rest position to a crest or a trough It takes more energy to produce a wave with.. higher crests and deeper troughs The more energy a wave has, the ______ its amplitude greater To measure the amplitude of a longitudinal wave... use the max displacement of a point from its rest position (the more energy the wave has, the more the medium will be compressed or displaced) occurs when a wave bounces off a surface that it cannot pass through reflection Reflection does not change the ___ or ___ of a wave but the wave can be flipped upside down. speed, frequency The reflected wave will be upside down compared to the original wave if the reflection occurs at... a fixed boundary the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium at an angle Refraction When a wave enters a medium at an angle, refraction occurs because.. one side of the wave moves more slowly than the other side the bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening. Diffraction When waves bend around an obstacle, _____ can also occur. Diffraction A wave diffracts more if its wavelength is... large compared to the size of an opening or obstacle When diffraction occurs, if the wavelength is small compared to the opening or obstacle, the wave.. bends very little When diffraction occurs, the larger the wavelength is compared to the size to the opening or obstacle, the wave diffracts more. occurs when two or more waves overlap and combine together interference Two types of intereference Constructive, destructive The displacements of a wave combine to... increase amplitude in constructive destructive interferenceintereference and decrease amplitude in destructive interference Two types of intereference Constructive, destructive Occurs when two or more waves combine to produce a wave with a larger displacement Constructive interQference Can reduce the amplitude of a wave destructive interference Occurs when two or more waves combine to produce a wave with a smaller displacement Destructive interference When a crest meets a crest, the amplitude... increases When a crest meets a trough, the amplitude... is reduced A wave that appears to stay in one place and does not seem to move through the medium standing wave Point on a standing wave that has no displacement from the rest position Node A point where a crest or trough occurs midway between two nodes antinode A standing wave forms only if half a wavelength or a multiple of half a wavelength... fits exactly into the length of a vibrating cord Longitudinal waves- compressions and rarefactions- that travel through a medium. Sound waves Many behaviors of sounds can be explained using.. (5) speed, intensity, loudness, frequency, and pitch. Waves travel fastest in ___ slower in ____ and slowest in ____ solids, liquids, gasses (particles in a solid are closer together than particles in a liquid or gas) The speed of sound depends on... density and elasticity of the medium the rate at which a wave's energy flows through a given area Intensity Sound intensity depends on both... the wave's amplitude and the distance from the sound source Sound intenisty levels are measured in... decibels (dB) - a unit that compares the intensity of different sounds The decibel scale is based on... powers of ten a physical response to the intensity of sound, modified by physical factors. Loudness As intensity increases, loudness _____ increases the frequency of sound as you percieve it pitch sound at frequencies lower than most people can hear Infrasound sound at frequencies higher than most people can hear Ultrasound Ultrasound is used in... sonar and ultrasound imaging a technique for determining the distance to an object under water. Sonar S.O.N.A.R sound navigation and ranging Each ultrasound puplse 1/8000 of a second A change in sound frequency caused by motion of the sound sorce, listener, or both. Doppler effect Doppler effect was discovered by... Austrian scientist Christian Doppler. (1803-1853) As a source of sound approaches, an observer hears a ____ frequency. As it moves away, a _____ frequency is heard. higher, lower 3 system ear consists of Outer ear, middle ear, and the inner ear gathers and focuses sound into the middle ear the outer ear recieves and amplifies vibrations middle ear uses nerve endings to sense vibrations and send signals to the brain inner ear sound wave strikes eardrum, (a tightly stretched membrane between outer and middle) - & the eardrum vibrates at the same frequency as the sound waves striking it. Outer ear Contains hammer, anvil, & stirrup. When eardrum vibrates, the hammer vibrates at the same frequency. The hammer strikes the anvil, which moves the stirrup back and forth. The three bones act as a lever system to amplify the motion of the eardrum. The middle ear 3 bones in middle ear Hammer, anvil, & stirrup Vibrations from the stirrup travel into the cochlea (a spiral shapes canal filled with fluid) The inside of the cochlea is lined w/ thousands of nerve cells with tiny hair-like projections. As the fluid in the cochlea vibrates, the projections sway back and forth and send electrical impulses to the brain. Inner ear Sound is recorded by... converting sound waves into electronic signals that can be processed and stored. Sound is reproduced by... converting electronic signals back into sound wavesl Most musical instruments vary their pitch by.. changing the frequency of standing waves Musical instruments often use ___ to amplify sound resonance Response of a standing wave to another wave of the same frequency Resonance A wave entering a new medium at an angle will undergo _____ as one end of the wave changes speed. Refraction A cat can hear frequencies up to _______ 65,000 Hertz The ______ is a line drawn perpendicular to the barrier in a reflective wave normal Instead of crests and troughs, as in an ocean wave, a longitudinal wave has _____ and ______ compassion & rarefaction An _____ _____ is a frequency higher than most people can hear ultrasonic soundwave In a transverse wave, ______ is measured from crest to crest or from trough to trough Doppler Effect The crest of a transverse wave is most similar to a(an) ______ in a longitudinal wave compression A _____ is the material through which a mechanical wave travels medium _______ measures the greatest displacement of a wave from the rest position amplitude A wave in a rope is a transverse wave, but a sound in a wave is a _____ wave longitudinal At the _____ of a standing wave, there is no displacement from the rest position. node In 1970, ___ ____ worked with noise cancellation technology Barry Chaplain The standard measure used to compare sound intensities is the ______ decibel Earthquake waves are ____ as they pass through different layers of earth refracted The range of human hearing is _____ to _____ Hz 20 - 20,000 hertz The _____ ____ is a change in sound frequency caused by motion of the sound source, motion of the listener, or both. Doppler Effect The part of the ear that is a funnel for sound waves is the _____ ear. outer eat ____ ___ occurs when troughs of one waave meet crests of another wave. interference Once you find a frequency that produces a ____ ____, doubling or tripling the frequency will also produce it. standing wave Sounds greater than _____ dB can damage hearing. 90 - 120 decibels A line drawn showing the direction a wave travels on a reflective wave is called a _____ ray If two waves collide and form a temporary larger wave, the interference is _____ constructive An _____ ____ is a frequency lower than most people can hear. infrasonic soundwave Waves in a rope are transverse waves because the medium's vibration is ____ to the direction in which the wave travels. at right angles ____ ____ breoke the sound barrier by flying at a speed of 293 m/s at an altitude of 12,0000 m. Chuck Yeager