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67 Cards in this Set

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Gastric Glands
Glands in the stomach lining that secrete enzymes, mucus, or hydrochloric acid
Rugae
Wrinkles or folds
A)Fundus
B)Body
C)Pylorus
A)(of stomach) enlarged portion to the left of and above the opening of the esophagus into the stomach
B)Central part of stomach
C)is lower narrow section, which joins the first part of the small intestine
Pyloric Sphincter
Consists of smooth muscle fibre responsible for staying contracted most of the time, and thereby close off the opening of the pylorus in to the small intestine
Gastroenterology
The study of the stomach and intesines and their diseases. (The stomach is the potential sites of numerous disease and conditions)
Gastritis
Stomach Inflammation
Anorexia
Chronic loss of appetite
Nausea
Unpleasant feeling that often leads to vomiting
Emesis
Vomiting
Pylorospasm: Common condition in INFANTS. When the pyloric muscle fibers do not relax normally
Causing:food not being allowed to leave the stomach, and absorbing it. Relieved by the admin of a drug that relaxes smooth muscles.
Pyloric Stenosis:
(pie-Lo-rik ste-NO sis)
Obstructive narrowing of its opening
Ulcer
craterlike wound or sore in the membrane caused by tissue destruction.
Helicobacter pylori *H.pylori*
Most gastric and duodenal ulcers result from infection with this bacterium-it burrows its way into the GI tract and impairs the linings's abvility to produce protective mucus
NSAIDs- nonsteriod antiinflammatory drug
can lead to ulcers due to the long term use of NSAIDs ex: Aspirin, Ibuprofen
Triple Therapy: More then one cycle may be required
Re: Ulcer treatment
antibiotic based treatment, requires three medications be taken concurrently for 2-4 weeks.
Stomach Cancer
usually metastasized before they are found bc patients treat themselves for heartburn, belching, nausea.
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
A)First subdivision of the small intestine where most chemical digestion occurs
B)middle third of the sm. intestine
C)distal portion Sm.intestine
Intestinal Glands
Secrete tghe intestinal digestive juice
Plicae
Intestinal lining is arranged into multiple cirular folds
Villi-The plicae folds are covered by tiny finger like projections in the intestine.
Absorb the products of carb, and protein digestions(sugar\amino acids)
Lacteal
Lymphatic vessel located in each villus of the intestine; serves to absorb fat material from the chyme passing through the sm.intestine.
Microvilli
brushlike border made up of epithelial cells found on each villus in the small intestine and other areas of the body; increases the surface area
Enteritis
Inflamation of small intestine
Malabsorption Syndrome:
Group of symptoms associated with the failure to absorb food properly; anorexia, ascites, cramps, anemia, fatigue
Bile
substance that reduces large fat globules into smaller droplets of fat that are more easily broken down
CCK-cholecytokinin (koh-leh-sis-toh-KYE-nin)
Fats in chyme stimulate of "trigger" the secretion of this hormone. This hormone stimulates the gallbladder to contract, and bile flows up into the duodenum
Silent gallstones
gallstones that never cause problems. Those that do cause symptoms are call: Symptomatic Gallstones!
Cholelithiasis
"condition of having bile (gall) stones"
Cholecystitis
gallbladder inflamation
Jaundice (JAWN-dis)
Excessive amounts of bile would absorb into the blood causing a yellow discolouration of the skin, pain often accompanies the condition
Cholecystectomy
The removal of the gallbladder due to Symptomatic gallstone formation.
Bariatirics
(Greek-baros, means weight)
Specialized field of medicine that deals with treatment of obesity
Hepatitis
General term:inflammation of the liver. Characterized by Jaundice, liver enlargement, anorexia, abd. discomfort, gray-white feces, and dark urine
Hepatitis A
Infection by the Hepatitis A virus. Contaminated food is often the source of infection.
Hepatitis B
More severe then HEP A. Also called serum hepatitis because often transmitted by contaminated blood serum. Ex: tattooing needles
Hepatitis C (non-A, non B hepatitis)Can become chronic and result in cirrhosis, or liver cancer-many months or years after exposure.
From of viral liver inflammation most often associated with transfusion of contaminated blood or intravenous drug abuse
Cirrhosis
Degeneration of the liver tissue characterized by the replacement of damaged liver tissue with fibrous or fatty connective tissue
Pancreatitis
Inflamation of the pancreas
Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
Inherited disease involving abnormal chloride ion (CI-) transport; causes secretion of abnormally thick mucus and other problems
Ileocecal Valve
Spincter like structure between the end of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine
Subdivision of the large intestine in order of fecal matter process
Cecum-Ascending colon-Transverse colon- descending colon-sigmond colon-Rectum-Anal Canal
Cecum
The Ileocecal valve open into a pouchlike area: Cecum
Dysentery
Infammatory condition of colon characterized by frequent diarrhea which may contain blood or pus
Constipation
Decreased intestinal motility: fecal matter five days plus, becomes more solid
Diverticulitis
Inflammation of abnormal saclike outpouchings of the intestinal wall called: diverticula, 50+ yr.
Colitis
Infammatory condition of the large intestine, in prolonged could cause Colorectal cancer.
Crohn's Disease
Another autoimmune colitis, it also often affects the Sm.intestine.
Colorectal Cancer
Malignancy, usually adenocarcinoma, of the columnar epithelium that lines the lumen of the colon and or rectum.
Colostomy:
Surgical procedure in which an artificial anus in created on the abd. wall: called a stoma
Vermiform Appendix
Vermis-worm, Forma-shape. Implies a wormlike, tubular structure attached to the cecum and composed of lymphatic tissue
Mesentery
A large double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the loops of the digestive tract to the posterior wall of the abd. cavity
Greater Omentum
pouchlike extension of the visceral peritoneum from the lower edge of the stomach, part of the duodenum, and the transverse colon.
Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum:a bacterial infection or another irritating condition.Usually after the rupture of the appendix, or other abd.organs.
Ascites
Results from an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal space
Deglutition
swallowing, re: mechanical digestion
Amylase
Indicates that the enzyme digests carbohydrates (starches\sugars)
Protease
Indicates a protein-digesting enzyme
Lipase
Fat digesting enzymes
SALIVA
Salivary Amylase
DIGESTS: Starch(polysaccharide)
RESULTING PRODUCT:(maltose (double sugar, or dsaccharide)
GASTRIC JUICES
Protease(pepsin) plus hydrochloric acid
DIGESTS: proteins
RESULTING PRODUCT:partially digested proteins
PANCREATIC JUICE
A)Proteases (eg: trypsin)
DIGESTS:
proteins

RESULTING PRODUCT:
Peptides and amino acids
INTESTINAL ENZYMES
A)PEPTIDASES
DIGESTS:
peptides
RESULTING PRODUCT
Amino Acids
PANCREATIC JUICE
Lipases
DIGESTS
Fats emulsified by bile
RESULTING PRODUCT:
Fatty acids, monglycerides, and glycerol
PANCREATIC JUICE
Amylase
DIGESTS
Starch
RESULTING PRODUCT:
Maltose
INTESTINAL ENZYMES
Sucrase
DIGESTS:
Sucrose (cane sugar)
RESULTING PRODUCT:
B)glucose and fructose-simple sugars, or mono saccharides
INTESTINAL ENYZYME
Lactase
Digestion (or Hydrolyzed)
Lactose (milk sugar)
RESULTING PRODUCT:
Glucose and galactose(simple sugars)
INTESTINAL ENYZYME
MALTASE
Digestion-or hydrolyzed
Maltose (malt sugar)
Results:
Glucose