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### 29 Cards in this Set

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 thermochemistry the study of changes in energy that occur during chemical and physical changes Kinetic Energy energy of motion Potential Energy stored energy (waiting to happen) Chemical Potential Energy stored energy in chemical bonds (making and breaking) Heat (q) - an energy transfer from one object to another, always going from hot to cold Law of Conservation of Energy energy cannot be created or destroyed by ordinary chemical or physical means, but it can be transferred Exothermic energy is being released - energy on product side Endothermic enery is being absorbed - energy on reactant side SI Unit Joule (J) 1 cal = 4.184 J Common Unit Calorie 1 Cal= 1000 cal= 1kcal a calorie is the specific heat of water Heat Capacity the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree C Specific Heat the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree C per gram (C) - C of H2O is 4.18 J/degreeC Calorimeter -measures calories -opposite temperature of actual thing qcalorimeter = -qreaction Equation for Calorimetry q = mC(deltaT) q=heat m=mass C=specific heat deltaT=change in temperature Thermochemical Equations chemical equations which include energy as a reactant or product -involve energy stoichiometry Reaction Coordinates relative charts that show energy of reactants and products, the added energy needed to start a reaction, and amount of heat produced delta H the amount of heat produced products-reactants -deltaH is exothermic,A to B +deltaH is endothermic,B to A q=deltaH=enthalpy State Function functions which are independent of the path taken Hess' Law Method find deltaH using multiple equations and combining them to find the given equation Standard Heats of Formation (deltaHfdegrees) method -the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of the compound from its elements in their standard state - use chart on pg 530 = sum of deltaH products-sum of deltaH reactants Collision Theory -reactions are car accidents - they need to be near each other and hit for reaction to occur -Factors: Temperature, Pressure, Concentration, Catalysts, Particle Size(Surface Area) Reversible Reaction reaction that can go from A to B, or B to A Chemical Equilibrium the rate of forward and reverse are the same Le Chatelier's Principle if stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system will change in a way to relieve the stress Free Energy ( G ) - energy available to do work or the amount you can use - change is Gibbs Spontanious Reaction reaction can occur by simply bringing reactants together, without stirring or anything - deltaG is negative Entropy ( s ) - the measure of disroder - high mess=high entropy Law of Disorder natural tendency is for a system to maximize disorder, increasing s Free Energy equation deltaG=deltaH-TdeltaS deltaG=change in Gibbs(G) deltaH=heat of reaction T= temperature in kelvin deltaS= change in entropy