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29 Cards in this Set

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thermochemistry
the study of changes in energy that occur during chemical and physical changes
Kinetic Energy
energy of motion
Potential Energy
stored energy (waiting to happen)
Chemical Potential Energy
stored energy in chemical bonds (making and breaking)
Heat
(q) - an energy transfer from one object to another, always going from hot to cold
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed by ordinary chemical or physical means, but it can be transferred
Exothermic
energy is being released - energy on product side
Endothermic
enery is being absorbed - energy on reactant side
SI Unit
Joule (J)
1 cal = 4.184 J
Common Unit
Calorie
1 Cal= 1000 cal= 1kcal
a calorie is the specific heat of water
Heat Capacity
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree C
Specific Heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree C per gram (C)
- C of H2O is 4.18 J/degreeC
Calorimeter
-measures calories
-opposite temperature of actual thing
qcalorimeter = -qreaction
Equation for Calorimetry
q = mC(deltaT)
q=heat
m=mass
C=specific heat
deltaT=change in temperature
Thermochemical Equations
chemical equations which include energy as a reactant or product
-involve energy stoichiometry
Reaction Coordinates
relative charts that show energy of reactants and products, the added energy needed to start a reaction, and amount of heat produced
delta H
the amount of heat produced
products-reactants
-deltaH is exothermic,A to B
+deltaH is endothermic,B to A
q=deltaH=enthalpy
State Function
functions which are independent of the path taken
Hess' Law Method
find deltaH using multiple equations and combining them to find the given equation
Standard Heats of Formation
(deltaHfdegrees) method
-the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of the compound from its elements in their standard state
- use chart on pg 530
= sum of deltaH products-sum of deltaH reactants
Collision Theory
-reactions are car accidents
- they need to be near each other and hit for reaction to occur
-Factors: Temperature, Pressure, Concentration, Catalysts, Particle Size(Surface Area)
Reversible Reaction
reaction that can go from A to B, or B to A
Chemical Equilibrium
the rate of forward and reverse are the same
Le Chatelier's Principle
if stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system will change in a way to relieve the stress
Free Energy
( G )
- energy available to do work or the amount you can use
- change is Gibbs
Spontanious Reaction
reaction can occur by simply bringing reactants together, without stirring or anything
- deltaG is negative
Entropy
( s )
- the measure of disroder
- high mess=high entropy
Law of Disorder
natural tendency is for a system to maximize disorder, increasing s
Free Energy equation
deltaG=deltaH-TdeltaS
deltaG=change in Gibbs(G)
deltaH=heat of reaction
T= temperature in kelvin
deltaS= change in entropy