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41 Cards in this Set

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List the people who aided in the discovery of the genetic code in DNA.
Mendel
Darwin
Morgan
Griffith
Chargoff
Avery/MacLeod
Hershey/Chase
Watson/Crick & Franklin
Meselson/Franklin
P.288-293
What did Morgan's Experiment show?
1. Genes are located on chromosomes
2. Chromosomes are made of DNA and Histones.
p.287
In his work with pneumonia-causing bacteria and mice this person concluded that some chemical from pathogenic cells was transferred to non-pathogenic cells, making them pathogenic.
Griffith, 1928
p.301
Who provided evidence that DNA can transform bacteria?
Griffith & Avery/MacLeod
p.288
What is a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell?
Transformation
p.288
Who discovered that the transforming agent was DNA?
Avery/MacLeod
p.288
Who purified various chemicals from the heat-killed pathogenic bacteria, and then put each chemical into a nonpathogenic bacteria to see that DNA was the only chemical that transformed the nonpathogenic bacteria to become pathogenic.
Avery/MacLeod
p.288
What are viruses that infect bacteria?
Bacteriophage
p.288
Who showed that viral DNA can reprogram cells by putting in new genes?
Hershey/Chase, 1952
p.288
Who discovered that DNA is the genetic material of a phage?
Hershey/Chase
p.288
How did Hershey and Chase discover that a phage's DNA could reprogram bacteria cells to produce viruses?
They used different radioactive isotopes to tag phage DNA and protein, and found that the phage's DNA entered the cell.
p.289
Who provided evidence that DNA was the cause of molecular diversity?
Chargaff (pairing), 1947
p.290
What are Chargaff’s Rules?
In the DNA of each species the number of A=T and C=G. Each of the nitrogenous bases are present in a characteristic ratio.
p.290
Who discovered how the structure of DNA accounts fir its role in inheritance?
Watson and Crick, 1953
p.290
What is DNA a polymer of?
Nucleotides
Notes 4-12-04
How did Watson know that DNA was helical?
Franklin's X-ray diffraction photo of DNA produced a pattern of a helical molecule.
p.291
What 3 physical characteristics of DNA did Watson deduce from the X-ray diffraction photo?
1. Helical shape
2. Spacing of the nitrogenous bases
3. Double stranded
p.291
What enables existing DNA strands to serve as templates for new strands during DNA replication?
Base pairing
p.293
Which of the 3 models of DNA replication did Watson and Crick predict?
Semi-conservative, the correct one!
p.293
What 3 models of DNA replication were proposed by Meselson and Stahl?
1. Conservative
2. Semi-conservative
3. Dispersive
p.293
Who devised and tested an experiment for DNA replication?
Meselson/Stahl
p.293
Where does the replication of a DNA molecule start?
Origins of Replication
p.295
This is the stretch of DNA having a specific sequence of nucleotides.
Origins of replication
p.295
Which enzyme unwinds the DNA strand into 2 strands?
Helicase
p.297-8
Which enzyme begins the DNA replication process?
Helicase
p.297-8 and Note 4-12-04
Which bonds hold the nucleotides together, and are they covalent?
H-bonds = non-covalent
Notes 4-12-04
What type of bond does the sugar-phosphate backbone comprise?
Covalent
Notes 4-12-04
What does the semi-conservative model show?
Each daughter cell is comprised of 1 old strand and 1 new strand.
Notes 4-12-04
What function does DNA polymerase perform?
Adds nucleotides to the growing end of a new DNA strand. These bond to the OH (3') to add to the 5' to 3' direction
p.295
Which direction can a new DNA strand elongate in?
5' › 3'
p.296
What function does Ligase perform in DNA replication?
Joins newly synthesized DNA
Notes 4-12-04
What does Ligase create?
Sugar-phosphate linkage
Notes 4-12-04
What function does Primase perform in DNA replication?
Tells the DNA where to start to make a RNA primer to start a new chain.
p.297
In which order are enzymes used in DNA replication?
1. Helicase
2. Primase
3. DNA Polymerase
4. Ligase
p.298
What is a discontinuously joined DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork?
Lagging Strand
Glossary
What is a continuously joined DNA strand that elongates in a direction along the template strand in the mandatory 5'› 3' direction?
Leading Strand
Glossary
Does ligase operate on the leading or lagging strand?
Lagging Strand
p.297
What is meant when we say that the 2 DNA strands are antiparallel?
Their sugar-phosphate backbone runs in opposite directions.
p.296
How do we describe the 2 sugar-phosphate backbones relative to one another?
Anti-parallel (upside down not going in the same direction.)
p.296
At which end of a growing strand can DNA polymerase join new nucleotides?
3' end of a growing strand (OH end)
p.302 Self Quiz Q.4
The primer that initiates synthesis of a new DNA strand is usually what type of macromolecule, and which one specifically?
Nucleotide; RNA
p.302 Self Quiz Q 6