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34 Cards in this Set

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Bessemer process
Method that could produce more steel in one day that the older techniques could turn out in one week.
Edwin L. Drake
Used a steam engine to dril for oil near Titusville, PA in 1859.
Elijah McCoy
Made a significant contribution to the industrial use of oil.
Patent
A guarantee to protect an inventor's rights to make, use, or sell the invention.
Transcontinental railroad
Completed in 1869, it was finished when the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads were joined to create a single rail line from Omaha to the Pacific Ocean.
Trunk lines
Major railroads.
George Westinghouse
Developed a compressed-air brake.
Telegraph
One of the most significant advances in communication in the late 1800's.
Alexander Graham Bell
In 1876 patented the telephone.
Thomas Alva Edison
His first major invention was a telegraph that could send up to four messages over the same wire simultaneously. He also made significant discoveries in electricity, lightbulbs, phonographs, and early motion picture cameras.
Lewis Latimer
A skilled draftsman who made significant contributions to the development of the lightbulb with Thomas Edison.
Capitalism
In which private businesses run most industries, and competition determines how much goods cost and workers are paid.
Horatio Alger Jr.
Published a popular series of novels that reflected the increasing importance placed on individualism.
Free enterprise
The belief that the economy would prosper if businesses were left free from govt. regulation and allowed to compete in a free market.
Communism
Theory that individual ownership of property should not be allowed.
Social Darwinism
Idea that society progressed through natural competition. "Survival of the fittest."
Corporation
Where organizers raise money by selling shares of stock (certificates of ownership) in the property.
Andrew Carnegie
Urged people to invest in stocks he had.
Trust
A group of companies turn control of their stock over to a common board of trustees.
Monopoly
When a trust gains exclusive control of an industry.
Vertical Integration
Acquiring companies that provide materials and services upon an enterprise depended.
John D. Rockefeller
One founder of the Standard Oil Company.
Horizontal integration
One company's control of other companies producing the same product.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
A pioneer of the railroad industry, he operated a profitable shipping business.
George Pullman
One of the most successful railroad giants. He designed the railroad cars.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Outlawed all monopolies and trusts that restrained trade.
Knights of Labor
A successful early national union founded by nine garment workers in Philadelphia.
Terence V. Powderly
An Irish Catholic machinist and the mayor of Scranton, PA became the Knights of Labor leader.
Mary Harris Jones
Played a prominent role in the National Labor Union.
Great Upheaval
Intense strikes and violent labor confrontations by workers who pressed for better working conditions.
Haymarket Riot
The most notorious confrontation against McCormick Harvesting Machine Company.
Anarchists
People who oppose all forms of government.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
A new union founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886.
Eugene V. Debs
Head of the American Railway Union who supported Pullman strikers.