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26 Cards in this Set

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Acute infections nonbacterial gastroenteritis (AING)
Self-limiting condition. Fever vomiting malaise and diarrhea. (more serious in infants b/c dehydration)
Two of the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis in US.
Norovirus and Rotavirus.
Norovirus ( Norwalk virus)
one fo the smallest viruses (25-30nm) round, nonenveloped
RNA
single protein capsid.
cannot be cultured in tissue yet.
______ gastroenteritis occurs mostly in school age children and adults, not infants.
norovirus . ( symptoms include mud butt, nausea, cramps, vomiting. last 12-60hr)
What is the treatment for norovirus gastroenteritis?
disease is self limiting no treatment except rehydration.
Rotavirus
wheel shaped
nonenveloped
segmented dsRNA
highly infectious can survive stomach
small # of particles needed to infect
Major cause of AING in infants and young children (us and world).
rotavirus
Why is rotavirus replication unusual?
they bud through ER instead of cytoplasmic membrane and acquire transiet envelope.
What causes diarrhea with rotavirus?
rota infects tips of villi, they die and sloughed, villi shrink, smaller area and damage to mucosal surface = mud butt due to less water reabsorption.
How is rotavirus infection diagnosed?
stool ELISA
How are rotaviruses distinguished?
by differences in viral proteins, encoded by a separate dsRNA segment
How many major types of rotavirus in the US?
4 called G group antigen types(1,2,3,4) based on VP7(antibodies agains this are protective)
What is the basis for the Rotashield vaccine? why was it pulled?
A mixture of group 1-4 monkey viruses that are attenuated and antigenic?

Association with intussusception in infants following vaccination.
Most common cause of liver inflammation?
Hep A,B,C,D,E
Symptoms of hepatitis
fever nausea vomiting and jaundice
Hep A
picornavirus
nonenveloped
ssRNA (+)
spread by ingestion
causes infections hepatitis
Hep B
hepadnavirus
enveloped
partly dsDNA
spread by blood, blood products, shared needles, sexual contact
Hep C
flavivirus
enveloped
ssRNA (+)
spread by blood, blood prod, needles, sex
Hep D
-defective virus, needs B for essential replication and transmission factors
-small
-nonenveloped
-covalently closed ssRNA
Hep E
related to picornavirus
ssRNA
How does Hep A get to liver?
it penetrates the intestinal mucosa and reaches liver where it replicates
why do you get jaundice with hep A?
damage is done to liver so that bile pigments build up in tissues instead of being filtered through the liver.
why is hep A so infectious?
during incubation large # of viruses are shed in poop. and can contaminate water or hands --> food. (wash your dirty ass hands)
Is hep A lifetime disease?
No, its self limiting, shedding continues a couple weeks after symptoms subside but disease does not persist.
how is diagnosis of hep a made?
detecting anti-hep A IgM. IgG titers are life long and protective againts Hep A
what is the treatment for Hep A?
no therapy. there is new vaccine however to help prevent.