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41 Cards in this Set

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How did Dawn and Sid correct his posture?
A harness with a warning stimulus (3 second timer) and an aversive stimulus (tone)
What type of contingency was the harness?
Avoidance
Avoidance contingency
-The immediate
-response-contingent
-prevention of
-an aversive condition
-resulting in an increased frequency of that response
Avoidance Principle
-A response becomes more frequent in the future
-if it has immediately prevented
-an aversive condition in the past
What was the problem with Jimmy?
He did not have eye contact with his instructors and food and social approval were not working as reinforcers
How did they get Jimmy to look at his instructors?
Overcorrection

If Jimmy didn't look at the instructor they would physically guide him and have him hold his head in three positions for 15 seconds each

Jimmy avoided overcorrection by maintaining eye contact
Eye contact general rule
If you're having trouble getting a person to listen to you, be sure you have eye contact before you start talking
What were Sid's satiny satanic sins?
An ice cream cone

He had to lick it quickly to avoid it melting in the hot sun
How did Mae get the terrible trio to stay on task?
A timer would go off on a variable schedule and if a kid was not on task (not working hard), they were sent out into the hall for 3 minutes
What was the contingency for the terrible trio?
Before: Kid will soon have to leave the classroom for 3 minutes
Behavior: Kid works hard
After: Kid won't soon have to leave the classroom for 3 minutes
Avoidance-of-loss Contingency
-Response-contingent
-prevention of loss
-of a reinforcer
-resulting in an increased frequency of that response
Principle of Avoidance of Loss
-A response becomes more frequent in the future
-if it has immediately prevented
-the loss of a reinforcer in the past
How did the teacher get 8 elementary school students in summer school to stay on task?
Reprimands (in addition to reinforcers)
What is the difference between Escape and Avoidance?
Escape: response removes an aversive condition that has already been presented

Avoidance: response prevents an aversive condition from being presented
What was the example of cued avoidance with Rudolph?
A buzzer (warning stimulus) comes on 3 seconds before the presentation of a shock

Eventually Rudolph will begin pressing the lever during the warning stimulus
Pairing procedure
-Pairing of a neutral stimulus
-with a reinforcer or
-aversive condition
Value-altering principle
The pairing procedure converts a neutral stimulus into a learned reinforcer or learned aversive condition
What was the example with Sid of continuous-response avoidance?
Sid continually kept good posture in order to avoid the click of the timer and the aversive tone
What was the example with Rudolph of noncued avoidance?
A brief shock was presented every 20 seconds without warning.

Eventually, Rudolph will develop a steady rate of responding that prevents almost all shocks
What was the example with Rudolph of avoidance of a loss of a reinforcer?
Before: Rudolph will lose water in 20 seconds
Behavior: Rudolph pulls the chain
After: Rudolph won't lose the water in 20 seconds
Dead man test
If a dead man can do it, it ain't behavior

(e.g. slouching isn't behavior, but good posture IS behavior)
Rolling over the dead man
Using the opposite response
What was the cued avoidance contingency with Behaviorman?
*Escape*
-Before: BM sees descending ceiling
-Behavior: BM pushes up
-After: BM does not see ceiling descending

*Avoidance*
-Before: All will be crushed
-Behavior: BM pushes up
-After: None will be crushed
How do you know you have an avoidance contingency, not a punishment contingency?
If the so called "punished" response is really a large class, consisting of all other imaginable responses
Avoidance of the Loss of a Reinforcer vs. Punishment by the Removal of a Reinforcer

Involves the removal of a reinforcer?
Avoidance of loss: Yes

Punishment by Removal: Yes
Removal is contingent on a specific response?
Avoidance of loss: No

Punishment by Removal: Yes
Keeping the reinforcer is contingent on a specific response
Avoidance of loss: Yes

Punishment by removal: No
The frequency of the response of interest ...
Avoidance of loss: Increases

Punishment by Removal: Decreases
Warning stimulus
-A stimulus that precedes
-an aversive condition
-and thus becomes a learned aversive stimulus
Where should you put the warning stimulus in a contingency?
The before condition
Great-new-ideas general rule
New ideas rarely work until you've revised them at least three times
What is a pilot study?
The time you study a new idea before you actually have to implement it
What was the conditional aversive stimulus in "Jimmy's eyes"?
The combination of "Look at me" and the proprioceptive stimuli of not looking at the instructor, paired with overcorrection
Conditional Stimulus
-Elements of a stimulus have their value or function only when they are combined
-otherwise, the individual elements are relatively neutral
What was the Conditional learned aversive stimulus in Sid's slouching?
The slouching (because it had been paired with the timer click and buzzing)
Teleology
The explanation of current events in terms of future events;

saying the future causes the past

(e.g. our ancestors developed noses and ears so we would have a place to rest our glasses)
What does the arrow in behavioral diagrams mean?
That the before condition PRECEDES the response, not that it causes it
What were the four groups in the Twitching thumb experiment?
Group 1: Totally clueless about the thumb twitch ... thought experiment was about effects of noise superimposed over music on body tension

Group 2: Knew that there was a specific response that would turn off the noise

Group 3: Were told the effective response was the thumb twitch

Group 4: Were told that the response was the thumb twitch and had a meter in front of them during the first half hour of escape/avoidance
What were the results?
Group 1: Did well, even though they had no idea they were in control

Group 2: The two that gave up trying to figure it out did well and the other one falsely thought he had it figured out

Group 3: Did poorly because they made too large of twitches

Group 4: Did the best, even after the meter was removed
What happened during extinction?
Everyone's twitching was extinguished
What did the study show?
Contingencies can control our behavior, even when we are unaware of those contingencies, the behavior, or that any controlling is going on