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29 Cards in this Set

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Imitation
-The form of the behavior of the imitator
-is controlled by
-similar behavior of the model
Physical prompt (physical guidance)
-The trainer physically moves the trainee's body
-in an approximation of the desired response
Generalized Imitation
-Imitation of the response
-of a model
-without previous reinforcement
-of imitation of that specific response
Behavioral chains
more elaborate sequences of behaviors (in this case, imitative responses)
What must occur before unreinforced imitative responses occur?
Reinforcement of some other imitative responses.
What are two contingencies that cause the learning of imitative behavior?
1) Added reinforcement contingency
2) Natural reinforcement contingency
What did Marilla learn how to do?
Imitate responses and generalized imitation.
Verbal prompt
-A supplemental verbal stimulus
-that raises the probability of a correct response
What anticipation procedure did the ward attendant use with Dicky?
She would show him the picture for several seconds before giving him the verbal prompt.
What is the differential reinforcement of short latencies, as explained in Dicky's example?
Dicky will say what the picture is of right away, because he will be reinforced for his response more quickly if he says it right when he sees the picture, rather than waiting for a verbal prompt
How did the attendant use reinforcement to get Dicky's behavior under the control of stimuli outside of his immediate environment?
Ask him what he did outside when he was playing:

-if he didn't response right away, she would give him a verbal prompt ("I was swinging")
-would reinforce Dicky's imitation of the S^prompt
What were the results of Dicky's training?
His rate of language development was approximately normal. He could correctly use pronouns.
What was the drug the invaders from outer space were going to use?
Alcohol
What means were they going to use to spread the drug?
Marketing: advertising with celebrities using the product, telling kids that they weren't cool if they didn't drink it;

imitation
Form of the behavior
usually refers to the topography of the response
How do you know if it's really imitation?
Behavior of the imitator is similar to the behavior of the model because of experience with a special reinforcement contigency;

you must show that the behavior of the imitator is under the stimulus control of the behavior of the model, and NOT under the control of some third factor
When is it NOT imitation?
If the similarity were because both the imitator's behavior and the model's behavior were controlled by the same contingency

(e.g. Very loud noise causes both to cover ears)
Theory of Generalized imitation
-Generalized imitative responses occur
-because they automatically produce imitative reinforcers
Imitative reinforcers
-Stimuli arising from the match between
-the behavior of the imitator
-and the behavior of the model
-that function as reinforcers
What are examples of imitative reinforcers?
Visual and internal stimuli resulting from seeing and feeling behavior match the model's
Learned reinforcer (S^r)
-A stimulus, event, or condition that is a reinforcer,
-because it has been paired with another reinforcer

You can use the learned reinforcer to reinforce new behavior
What was the pairing procedure of imitative reinforcers with Marilla?
The proprioceptive stimuli were paired with food and praise
What are two ways a child's imitation of a parent's vocal behavior can be maintained?
1) learned imitative reinforcers

2) social or other reinforcers
When will there be an absence of generalized imitation?
When there is an absence of imitative reinforcers.
What is the only way for imitative responses to be strengthened in the absence of imitative reinforcers?
For each response to be reinforced by an added contingency
What was Rod's inappropriate imitation?
He imitated Sid's swearing
What was the neutral stimulus paired with the original reinforcer of approval from Rod's parents?
Stimulus arising from the match between Rod's behavior and his parent's behavior AND "Do this"
What did the other student invited to the behavior analysis professor's home not believe?
That you reinforce happiness ... happiness just happens
How could you prove that happy behavior is contingent on reinforcement?
-Wait until a time when the child isn't happy
-Shower the kid with love and warmth over a period of several days
-Happy behavior would drop because the reinforcers of love and warmth are no longer response-contingent