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81 Cards in this Set

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How do offspring acquire genes from their parents?
By inheriting chromosomes
p.234
What does evolutionary adaptation depend on?
Genetic variation
p.234
What describes the transmission of traits from one generation to the next?
Hereditary
p.234
What describes the difference in appearance between parents and siblings?
Genetic Variation
p.234
What it the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation?
Genetics
p.234
What are the hereditary units that offspring receive from their parents?
Genes
p.234
These things are segments of DNA.
Genes
p.234
What is DNA a polymer of?
Nucleotides

(4 different kinds of monomers)
p.234
What cellular vehicles transmit genes from one generation to the next?
Sperm and Ova
p.235
What does each chromosome consist of?
A single long DNA molecule and various proteins.
p.235
What is the name of the specific location on a chromosome where a gene is positioned?
Locus
p.235
What is the name of the specific location on a chromosome where a gene is positioned?
Locus
p.235
What kind of cell division is used in asexual reproduction?
Mitotic
p.235
What is the name of the offspring that is produced through asexual reproduction?
Clone
p.235
What is the cause of genetic differences in asexual reproduction?
Mutations
p.235
What mechanism generates genetic variation?
The behavior of chromosomes during the sexual life cycle.
p.235
What is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism?
Life Cycle
p.235
How are chromosomes arranged?
In pairs starting with the longest.
p.236
What 3 characteristics do homologous chromosomes have in common?
1. Length
2. Centromere position
3. Staining patter.
p.236
What 2 types of chromosomes does each individual have?
Sex chromosomes and Autosomes
p.236
What number of chromosomes do gametes have?
23
p.236
What is the union of gametes?
Fertilization
p.236
How many sets of chromosomes does a zygote have?
2; 1 maternal and 1 paternal
p.236
Is a zygote a diploid or haploid cell?
Diploid 2n=46 chromosomes = 2 sets
p.236
Is a zygote a diploid or haploid cell?
Diploid 2n=46 chromosomes = 2 sets
p.236
What is an ordered display of an individual's chromosomes?
Karyotype
p.236
Is a zygote a somatic cell or a gamete?
Somatic; diploid
p.236
What are the only cells of the human body not produced by mitosis?
Gametes
p.237
Where does meiosis occur in animals?
Ovaries and testes
p.237
Which type of cell division conserves the chromosome number?
Mitosis
p.237
What 2 things alternate in the sexual life cycles?
Fertilization and meiosis
p.238
Are the cells that divide by mitosis haploid or diploid?
They can be both
p.239
Are the cells that divide by meiosis haploid or diploid?
Diploid only
Are the cells that divide by mitosis haploid or diploid?
What is the name of the life cycle for plants and some algae?
Alternation of generation
p. 239
What are the names of the diploid and haploid cells in alternation of generation?
Diploid = Sporophyte
Haploid = Spore
p.239
What is the name of the 2 individual chromosomes inherited from different parents?
Homologous Chromosomes
p.239
What does Meiosis I begin with?
1 diploid parent cell containing 1 pair of Homologous chromosomes.
p.239
What does Meiosis I end with?
2 haploid daughter cells containing non-sister chromosomes.
p.239
What does Meiosis II begin with?
2 haploid daughter cells each containing non-sister chromatids.
p.239
What does Meiosis II end with?
4 haploid daughter cells
p.239
When in the cell cycle do the homologous pair of chromosomes replicate?
Interphase I of Meiosis
p.239
In what phase does synapsis occur?
Prophase I of Meiosis
p.240
What process attaches the homologous chromosomes tightly together all along their lengths?
Synapsis
p.240
In what phase of the cell cycle does a tetrad appear?
Prophase I of Meiosis
p.240
This is the cluster of 4 chromatids.
Tetrad
p.240
This is the cluster of 4 chromatids.
Tetrad
p.240
At what location do chromosomes change segments?
Chiasmata
p.240
What is crossed at the chiasmata?
Chromatids of homologous chromosomes.
p.240
Which phase of the Meiosis occupies the most time?
Prophase I
p.240
Where are the chromosomes aligned in Metaphase I?
Metaphase plate
p.240
What guides the movement of the chromosomes toward the poles?
Spindle Apparatus
p.240
What is positioned at opposite poles during Anaphase and Anaphase I?
Anaphase: Individual chromosomes
Anaphase I: Sister chromatids
p.240
What type of cells form during telophase I/cytokinesis?
2 haploid daughter cells where the chromosomes are still doubled.
p.241
How many times does interphase occur during Meiosis?
Once before Prophase I
p.241
What is the process by which duplicated chromosomes pair with their homologues?
Synapsis
p.243
What type of cell division enables multicellular adult to arise from zygote?
Mitosis
p.242
What type of cell division produces cells for growth and tissue repair?
Mitosis
p.242
What type of cell division produces gametes?
Meiosis
p.243
What type of cell division reduces chromosome number by half and introduces genetic variability among the gametes?
Meiosis
p.243
What 3 mechanisms contribute to genetic variation arising from sexual reproduction?
1. Independent Assortment of Chromosomes
2. Crossing Over
3. Random Fertilization
p.243
This contains all the nucleotides in DNA.
Genome
Bio 105 General Bio Notes
This is a sequence of DNA nucleotides that code for a specific protein.
Gene
Bio 105 Gen. Bio notes
This is a different form of the same gene.
Allele
Bio 105 Gen Bio notes
During what phase does the cell grow?
Interphase
Bio 105 Gen Bio notes
What separates the homologues?
Microtubules
Bio 105 Gen Bio notes
At what phases does genetic variation occur in Meiosis?
Prophase I = Crossing over
Metaphase I = Random Alignment
Bio 105 Gen Bio notes
These are genes we inherit that are a combination of the our 2 parents.
Recombinant Chromosomes
p.244
What type of chromosomes does crossing over produce?
Recombinant Chromosomes
p.244
When during the cell cycle does crossing over begin?
Prophase I
p.244
How do homologues align?
Gene by gene
p.244
On average, what number of cross overs occur per chromosome pair?
2 or 3
p.244
What phase is the cell in when it enters the G1 phase?
GO
Bio 210 Class notes 3/31/04
What number of chromosomes enter the G1 phase?
46
Bio 210A class notes 3/31/04
What is the division of cells to create germ cells?
Meiosis
Video notes 3/31/04
What has the same traits with different information?
Homologues
Video 3/31/04
What does Meiosis divide one diploid cell into?
4 haploid cells
Video 3/31/04
What are our traits determined by?
Our chromosomes
Video 3/31/04
What phase of the cell cycle provides the greatest difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Anaphase I = Genetic variation = greater diversity in gametes
Video 3/31/04
Meiosis II does what to the number of chromosomes in a parent cell?
Reduces
Video 3/31/04
How many pairs of chromosomes do the resulting cells have after Meiosis?
23 pairs
Video 3/31/04
Which is the last phase of Meiosis?
Telophase II
Video 3/31/04