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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Age grades
permanent age categories in a society through which people pass during the course of a lifetime.
Age organizations
a type of social organization found in East Africa and among certain Native American groups, wherein people of roughly the same age pass through different levels of society together; each ascending level, based on age, carries with it increased social status and rigidly defined roles.
Age set
a group of people roughly the same age who pass through various age grades together.
Ancestor worship
the worship of deceased relatives; these souls are considered supernatural beings and fully functioning members of a descent group.
Coercive theory of state formation
the argument that the state came into existence as a direct result of warfare.
Corporate lineages
kinship groups whose members engage in daily activities together
Council of elders
a formal control mechanism composed of a group of elders who settle disputes among individuals in a society.
Crime
harm to a person or property that is considered illegitimate by society.
Degradation ceremonies
deliberate and formal societal mechanisms designed to publicly humiliate someone who has broken a social norm.
Deviance
the violation of a social norm.
Ghost invocation
the practice of a living person (typically an elder) calling forth the wrath of ancestor-gods against an alleged sinner.
Ghostly vengeance
the belief that ancestor-gods (ghosts) will punish sinners.
Hydraulic theory of state formation
the notion that early state systems of government arose because small-scale farmers were willing to surrender a portion of their autonomy to a large government entity in exchange for the benefits of large-scale irrigation systems.
Intermediaries
mediators of disputes among individuals or families within a society
Law
cultural rules that regulate human behavior and maintain order.
Leopard-skin chief
an intermediary found among the Nuer of the African Sudan.
Moots
informal hearings of disputes for the purpose of resolving conflicts, usually found in small-scale societies.
Nation
a group of people who share a common identity, history, and culture.
Negative sanctions
punishment for violating the norms of a society.
Oath
a declaration to a god to attest to the truth of what a person says.
Ordeal
a painful and possibly life-threatening test inflicted on someone suspected of wrongdoing to determine guilt or innocence.
Pan-tribal mechanisms
mechanisms such as clans, age grades, and secret societies found in tribal societies that cut across kinship lines and serve to integrate all the local segments of the tribe into a larger whole.
Political coerciveness
the capacity of a political system to enforce its will on the general population.
Political integration
the process that brings disparate people under the control of a single political system.
Positive sanctions
a mechanism of social control for enforcing a society’s norms through rewards.
Public opinion
what the general public thinks about some issue
Rebellion
an attempt within society to disrupt the status quo and redistribute the power and resources.
Revolution
an attempt to overthrow the existing form of political organization, the principles of economic production and distribution, and the allocation of social status.
Sanctions
any means used to enforce compliance with the rules and norms of a society
Socialization
teaching young people the norms in a society.
Social norms
expected forms of behavior
Song duel
a means of settling disputes over wife stealing among the Inuit involving the use of song and lyrics to determine one’s guilt or innocence.
Specialized political roles
assignment and training of people who will carry out very specific tasks such as law enforcement, tax collection, dispute settlement, recruitment of labor, and protection from outside invasions.
Supernatural belief systems
a set of beliefs in forces that transcend the natural, observable world.
Voluntaristic theory of state formation
the theory that stable systems of state government arose because people voluntarily surrendered some of their autonomy to the state in exchange for certain benefits.
Warfare
institutionalized, armed conflict between nation-states or other politically distinct groups.
Witchcraft
an inborn, involuntary, and often unconscious capacity to cause harm to other people.