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89 Cards in this Set

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What is the purpose of Mitosis?
Reproduction, growth and repair.
p. 215
What process distributes identical sets of chromosomes to daughter cells?
Cell Division
p. 215
This is defined by the reproduction of cells.
Cell Division
p.215
How many chromosomes does a human cell have?
46 chromosomes
(or 23 sets of chromosomes)
p.215
What is made continuously from dividing cells in bone marrow?
New blood cells
p.215
What are packages of DNA molecules called?
Chromosomes
p.216
These are all the body cells except the reproductive ones.
Somatic Cells
p.216
Reproductive cells are also known as ____?
Gametes
p.216
How many chromosomes do gametes have?
23 chromosomes
p.216
What has 100's and 1000's of genes?
DNA Molecule
p.216
What maintains the structure of the chromosomes?
Histones (chromosomal proteins)
p.216
What helps to control the activity of the genes?
Histones (chromosomal proteins)
p.216
What is the term used to describe the DNA-protein complex?
Chromatids
p.216
What condenses after the cell duplicates its DNA?
Chromatin
p.216
What term is used to describe duplicated chromosomes?
Sister chromatids
p.216
These are identical copies of the choromsome's DNA molecule...
Sister Chromatids
p.216
What region joins the sister chromatids?
Centromere
p.216
What is the division of the nucleus?
Mitosis
p.216
What is the division of the cytoplasm?
Cytokinesis
p.216
What variation of cell division produces gametes?
Meiosis
p.217
What is the shortest part of the cell cycle?
Mitotic Phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)
p.217
What is the name of the longer phase that alternates with the Mitotic Phase?
Interphase
p.217
What are the 3 subphases of interphase?
1. G1 phase (first gap)
2. S Phase
3. G2 phase (second gap)
p.217
During what phase(s) does the cell grow and produce proteins and cytoplasmic organelles?
During ALL 3 phases
p.217
During what phase are chromosomes duplicated?
S phase
p.217
What are the 5 subphases of Mitosis?
1. Prophase
2. Prometaphase
3. Metaphase
4. Anaphase
5. Telophase
p.217
What phase is the growth period of the cell cycle?
Interphase
p.217
What is the name of the structure that helps to pull the chromosomes apart?
Spindle fibers
p.218
What is the macromolecule involved in mitosis?
Proteins Microtubules
p.218
What attaches to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids during metaphase?
Microtubules
p.219
During what phase of Mitosis are the sister chromatids considered chromosomes again?
Anaphase

When they're pulled apart
p.219
What is the division of one nucleus into 2 genetically identical nuclei?
Mitosis
p.219
What it is formed during cytokinesis in animals and plants?
Animals - Cleavage Furrow
Plants - Cell Wall
p.219
What distributes chromosomes to the daughter cells?
Mitotic Spindle
p.220
Where and when does the mitotic spindle form?
In the cytoplasm during prophase.
p.220
Microtubules are made from what form of protein?
Tubulin
p.220
Where does the assemble of the spindle mcrotubules start?
In the centrosomes.
p.220
During what phase does the single centrosome replicate to from 2 centrosomes?
Interphase
p.220
Where is the kinetochore located?
At the centromere of the sister chromatids
p.220
What are the structures of proteins and specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere called?
Kinetochore
p.220
During what phase is the spindle complete?
Metaphase
p.221
During what phase do the sister chromatids separate?
Anaphase
p.221
When does cytokinesis begin?
During Telophase, the last phase of Mitosis.
p.221
What protein structure assists in forming a cleavage furrow?
Microfilament, Actin
p.222
In what cell does a cleavage furrow form?
Animal Cell
Animal or Plant?
In what type of cell does cytokinesis take place?
Both animal and plant cells.
p.222
What substance forms the cell plate in a plant cell?
Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus
p.222
What type of cell division takes place in bacteria?
Binary Fission
p.223
How many chromosomes do bacteria have?
1 circular DNA
p.223
What drives the cell cycle?
Specific chemical signals present in the cytoplasm.
p.224
What triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle?
Cell Cycle Control System
p.226
What is the critical control point in the cell cycle where stop and go signals can regulate the cycle?
Checkpoints
p.223
Where are the 3 major checkpoints found?
G1, G2, and M Phase
p.223
Which checkpoint is the most important, and why?
G1; the go ahead at G1 usually sends the cell through completion of the cycle and division.
p.223
What phase are most of the cells of the human body in?
G0, nondividing/resting phase
p.226
What kinds of molecules make up the cell cycle control system?
Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases.
p.226
What kind of macromolecules perform a regulatory function in the cell cycle clock?
Proteins (protein kinases to be exact)
p.226
What enzymes activate or inactivate other proteins by phosphorylating them?
Protein Kinases
p.226
At what checkpoints do protein kinases give the go-ahead signals?
G1, and G2
p.226
Is a Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (Cdk) active or inactive?
Active when Kinase is attached to a Cyclin
p.226
What promotes mitosis by phosphorylating various proteins, including other enzymes?
MPF
p.227
What is formed when cyclin attaches to a Cyclin-Dependent Kinase?
MPF (M-phase promoting factor)
p.226
What does MPF trigger in Mitosis?
The cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint of the cell cycle
p.226
What component is recycled in the cell cycle, and where does it come from?
Cdk (from the MPF)
p.227
What purpose does the M checkpoint serve in the cell cycle?
It ensures that all of the sister chromatids kinetochores are attached to the spindle microtubules so that the daughter cells do not end up with missing or extra chromosomes.
p.227
What must be present for cells to divide?
Growth Factor
p.227
What is the protein released by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide?
Growth Factor
p.227
What is the type of connective tissue cell that has PDGF receptors on their plasma membrane?
Fibroblasts.
p.227
When do cyclin levels rise and fall?
Rise - Interphase
Fall - Mitosis
p.226
The M phase checkpoint controls the onset of which mitotic phase?
Anaphase
p.227
What type of external factors influence cell division?
Nutrients and the presence of growth factors,
p.227
What type of receptors do PDGF molecules bind?
Tyrosine-kinase receptors
p.227
What term describes the phenomenon in which crowded cells stop dividing?
Density-dependent inhibition
p.228
This is when cells divide until an open space is filled.
Density-dependent inhibition
p.228
What 2 signals determine the ability for an animal cell to divide?
Density-dependent inhibition
Anchorage dependence
p.228
When cells divide, the must be attached. What is this known as ____?
Anchorage Dependence
p.228
How do cancer cells differ from normal cells?
They exhibit neither density-dependence inhibition nor anchorage dependence.
p.228
What do normal cells use that cancer cell do not?
Growth factors
p.228
Why are cancer cells different from normal cells?
They do not heed the normal signals that regulate the cell cycle.
p.228
When does the problem begin with cancer cells?
When a single normal cell in a tissue is TRANSFORMED into a cancer cell.
p.228
What term describes the mass of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue?
Tumor
p.229
What type of tumor is recognized by a lump of abnormal cells formed at the original site?
Benign Tumor
p.229
What type of tumor is evasive enough to impair the functions of 1+ organs?
Malignant Tumor
p.229
What type of tumor does a person with cancer have?
Malignant Tumor
p.229
In what ways are the cells of a malignant tumor abnormal?
1. Unusual # of chromosomes
2. Their metabolism is deranged
3. Abnormal changes on the cell's surface causing it to spread to other tissues
p.229
What do we call cancer cells that have spread to locations distant from their original site?
Metastasis
p.229
What effect does cellular transformation have?
Alters the genes that somehow influence the cell cycle control system
p.229
How do cancer cells travel to other parts of the body?
Through lymph and blood vessels.
p.229
What is the decline of MPF at the end of mitosis caused by?
The enzymatic destruction of cyclin
p.229