Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An enzyme that uses ATP as a substrate to generate cyclic AMP, in which 5' and 3' positions of the sugar ring are connected via a phosphate group.
adenylate cyclase
The ability of a protein to change its conformation (and therefore activity) at one site as the result of binding a small molecule to a second site located elsewhere on the protein.
allosteric regulation
The action of a gene product that either inhibits (negative) or activates (positive) expression of the gene coding for it.
autogenous control
The level of response from a system in the absence of a stimulus.
basal level
A site or mutation that affects the properties only of its own molecule of DNA, often indicating that a site does not code for a diffusible product.
A process that occurs all the time, unchanged by any form of stimulus or external condition.
The common control of a group of genes.
coordinate regulation
A small molecule that triggers repression of transcription by binding to a regulator protein.
A positive regulator protein activated by cyclic AMP. It is needed for RNA polymerase to initiate transcription of many operons of E. coli.
CRP activator
A mutation that results in a mutant gene product that prevents the function of the wild-type gene product, causing loss or reduction of gene activity in cells containing both the mutant and wild-type alleles. The most common cause is that the gene codes for a homomultimeric protein whose function is lost if only one of the subunits is a mutant.
dominant negative mutation
Inducers that resemble authentic inducers of transcription, but are not substrates for the induced enzymes.
gratuitous inducers
The DNA-binding domain of the lac repressor.
A small molecule that triggers gene transcription by binding to a regulator protein.
The ability of bacteria (or yeast) to synthesize certain enzymes only when their substrates are present; applied to gene expression, it refers to switching on transcription as a result of interaction of the inducer with the regulator protein.
The change in the properties of a heteromultimeric protein brought about by the interaction of subunits coded by two different mutant alleles; the mixed protein may be more or less active than the protein consisting of subunits only of one or the other type.
interallelic complementation
It occurs when interallelic complementation allows a mutant subunit to suppress the activity of a wild-type subunit in a multimeric protein.
negative complementation
The default state of genes that are controlled by this regulation mechanism is to be expressed. A specific intervention is required to turn them off.
negative regulation
The site on DNA at which a repressor protein binds to prevent transcription from initiating at the adjacent promoter.
A unit of bacterial gene expression and regulation, including structural genes and control elements in DNA recognized by regulator gene product(s).
One of the proteins of the ribosome.
A gene that codes for a product (typically protein) that controls the expression of other genes (usually at the level of transcription).
regulator gene
The ability of bacteria to prevent synthesis of certain enzymes when their products are present; more generally, it refers to inhibition of transcription (or translation) by binding of repressor protein to a specific site on DNA (or mRNA).
A protein that inhibits expression of a gene. It may act to prevent transcription by binding to an operator site in DNA or to prevent translation by binding to RNA.
A gene that codes for any RNA or protein product other than a regulator.
structural gene
A product that can function on any copy of its target DNA. This implies that it is a diffusible protein or RNA.
A factor that is required for RNA polymerase to initiate transcription at specific promoter(s), but is not itself part of the enzyme.
transcription factor
A mutant where the affected gene(s) cannot be expressed.
uninducible mutant