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21 Cards in this Set

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autonomic nervous system
innervates all effector organs and tissues in the body except the skeletal muscles, including cardiac muscle, the smooth muscle found in blood vessels and various visceral organs (stomach & respiratory airways), glands (sweat glands, salivary glands, and some endocrine glands), and adipose tissue.

INVOLUNTARY nervous system
ANS
sympathetic
parasympathetic
dual innervation
both branches of the ANS innervate most organs, an arrangement known as _____ __________.
parasympathetic
The ____________ nervous system is most active during resting conditions, when it both stimulates the digestive organs inhibits the cardiovascular system.
sympathetic
In the ___________ nervous system it is mostly active during peroids of excitation or physical activity, when it coordinates a group of physiological changes known as the fight or flight response.
fight or flight response
in sympathetic nervous system

prepares body to cope w/ threatening situations.

increases heart contractions
homeostasis
The primary function of the ANS is to regulate the function of effector organs in order to maintain _____________.
parasympathetic
At rest, both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are active, but the _____________ dominates.
autonomic
CNS
In the _________ pathways, two neurons transmit info from the ___ to an effector organ.
preganglionic
synapses
The _____________ neuron originates in the CNS and travels to a ganglion in ther periphery, where it _________ w/a postganglionic neuron that innervates one of several types of effector organ.
neuroeffector junction
the synapse btwn an efferent neuron and its effector organ
variosities
Neurotransmitters are released from numerous swellings located at intervals along the axons of these neurons called ____________.
variosities
neurotransmitters are synthesized and then stored in vesicles.
usual voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels the support propagation of action potentials.
contain Ca+ channels too.
visceral reflexes
automatic changes in the functions of organs that occur in response to changing conditions w/in the body.
hypothalamus
pons
medulla oblongata
What are the 3 major area of the brain that regulate autonomic function?
hypothalamus
The ______________ initiates the fight-or-flight response to elicit widespread activation of the S.N.S. when a person is in danger or is otherwise excited.
hypothalamus
The ____________ contains the regulatory centers for body temp., food intake, and water balance, all of which are regulated in some way by autonomic efferent neurons.
medulla oblongata
pons
The ________ __________ and ____ contaqin cardiovacular and respiratory regulatory centers that control the heart, blood vessels, and smooth muscle in respiratory airways and regulate automatic breathing patterns do not require conscious thought.
autonomic reflexes
pupillary light reflex
accommadation reflex
vomiting reflex
swallowing reflex
emotions
________ have a strong effect on activity of the ANS and thus affect the functions of effector organs controlled by it.
ANS
nausea
motion sickness
sweating