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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
external ear
gathers sound waves and conduct them to the typanic membrane.
tympanic membrane
sep. the ext. and middle ears
middle ear
What part of the ear does amplification of sound waves in preparation for the transmission of those from air to fluid environment.
middle ear
malleus
incus
stapes
ossicles
extend from the tympanic membrane to a thin membrane (oval window).
oval window
conn. btwn. the middle and inner ears.
round window
conn. middle and inner ears
eustachian tube
conn. the middle ear w/ the pharynx
helps maintain normal pressure in the middle ear.
decibels
amplitude of a sound is most conveniently expressed in logarithmic units called ________.
hertz
The frequency of sound waves is measured as the number of waves per second, or _______.
sound waves
amplitude
The oscillations occur at the same frequency as that of the ______ ______, and w/ an amplitude proportional to the _________ of the sound waves.
malleus
tympanic
oscillate
Because the ________, the first of the small ossicles, is connected to the _________ membrane, oscillations of the tympanic membrane cause the malleus to ___________ at the same frequency and w/an amplitude reflecting that of the tympanic membrane's vibrations.
oval window
Amplification
The stapes overlies the ____ _______ to the fluid filled cochlea, such that oscillations of the stapes generates waves in the fluid of the cochlea. _____________ is required during this process.
cochlea
The organ in which sound transduction occurs.

looks like a spiral shell on outside
helicotrema
point at the end of the spiral
cochlea
vestibular membrane & basilar membrane seps. it into:

scala vestribuli (vestibular duct)
scala tympani (duct)
scala media (cochlear duct)
helicotrema
The vistibular and basilar membranes join at the ___________; thus there is an opening btwn the scala vestibuli and scala tympani at the ____________.
perilymph
What is the fluid in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani called?
(similar to cerebralspinal fluid)
endolymph
What is the fluid inside the scala media called?
(similar to intracellular fluid)
(high conc. of K+ and low conc. of Na+)
oval and round windows
What separates the cochlea from the middle ear?
stapes
oval window
round window
When the _______ vibrates in response to sound waves, it causes vibration of the ____ _______, producing waves in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli. The waves travel through the scala tympani, where they cause motion of the _______ _______.
organ of corti
hair cells
tectorial membrane
sterocilia
stereocilia
The anatomy of the organ of Corti is such that sound waves cause mechanical bending of the ___________, which causes receptor potentials in the hair cells.
open
close
Depending on the direction the stereocilia bend, K+ channels in the hair cells either _____ or ______.
depolarize
The opening of K+ channels results in K+ diffusing into the hair cell, causing ____________.
hyperpolarization
Closing of the K+ channels prevents K+ from diffusing into the hair cell, causing _______________.
bending of stereocilia
What causes the K+ channels to open or close?
partially depolarized
When the stereocilium are sticking straight up (no sound waves present), what happens to the hair cell?

it depolarizes
it hyperpolarizes
it partially depolarizes
it depolarizes
When the stereocilium are bent towards the taller stereocillium, what happens to the hair cell?

it depolarizes
it hyperpolarizes
it partially depolarizes
it hyperpolarizes
When the stereocilium are bent away from the largest stereocillium, what happens to the hair cell?

it depolarizes
it hyperpolarizes
it partially depolarizes
bony labyrinth
The vesitibular apparratus is located in cavities of the temporal bones called the ____ ________.
membranous labyrinth
The vestibular apparatus consists of membrane-bound structures w/in bony labyrinth, these structures are also called ___________ __________.
vestibular apparatus
semicircular canals
utricle
saccule
semicircular canals
detect rotational acceleration
oriented in planes that are perpendicular to each other
ant. canal (semicircular canals)
detects rotation of the head up and down, and when nodding "yes"
post. canal (semicircular canals)
detects rotation of the head up and down to the side, as in moving the ear to the shoulder.
lateral canals (semicircular canals)
detects rotation of the head from side to side, as when shaking the head to indicate "no"
utricle and saccule
detect linear acceleration
utricle
detects accleration forward and backward
saccule
detects acceleration up or down
ampulla
have receptor cells for equilibrium
a hair cell
an enlarged area at the base of each semicircular canal
cupula
in ampulla
a gelatinous area separated from the endolymph by a membrane
kinocilium
one of the stereocilia that is much larger that the others in the cupula.
endolymph
When the constant rotation suddenly stops, the head and bony labyrinth stop as well, but the ___________ keeps moving for a time.
otoliths
small calcium crystals that add mass to the gelatinous material