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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the conscious interpretation of the world based on the sensory systems, memory, and other neural processes.
visceral receptors
detect stimuli that arise within the obyd.

transmit info to the CNS by a class of afferen neurons called visceral afferents.
sensory receptors
receptors that detect stimuli in the external environment
visceral receptors in major blood vessels that monitor O2, CO2, H+ levels in the blood
visceral receptors in certain blood vessels that monitor blood pressure
visceral receptors in the G.I. tract that monitor the degree of stretch or distention.
pH receptors
visceral receptors in certain arteries and in the brainstem tell the brain whther the pH is normal, info that enable the brain to make regulatory decisions.
somatosensory system
necessary for perception of sensations associated w/receptors in the skin and for proprioception.
the perception of the postion of the limbs and the body.

depends on specific proprioceptors in muscles and joints and on more generalized receptors on the skin.
Special senses
necessary for senses of vision, hearing, balance and equalibrium, taste, and smell.
Sensory receptors
specialized neuronal structures that detect a specific form of energy in either the internal or external environment.
The energy form of a stimulus

light waves, sound waves, pressure, temp, and chemicals.
Law of specific nerve energies
a given sensory receptor is specific for a particular modality.
detect light waves, but not sound waves.
Adequate stimulus
The modality to which a receptor responeds best is called _________ __________.
conversion of one form of enregy into another.
sensory transduction
receptors convert the energy of a sensory stimulus into changes in membrane potential called receptor potentials
receptor potentials
generator potentials
resemble postsynaptic potentials in that they are graded potentials caused by the opening or closing of ion channels.

greater the change in stimulus, the greater the change in membrane potential

triggered by sensory stimuli
sensory receptor
In some cases, a _________ ________ is a specialized structure at the peripheral end of an afferent neuron.
When such a receptor is ___________ to threshold, an action potential is generated in the afferent neuron and propagated to the ___, thereby transmitting info about the stimulus.
sensory receptor
chemical messenger
When the _________ _________ is a separate cell communicates via a chemical synapse w/an associated afferent neuron.
When receptor is a separate cell, changes in the receptor cell membrane potential cause the release of a ________ __________ or ___________. The greater the stimulus, the more released. The transmitter then binds to the afferent receptors on the afferent neuron and causes change in membrane potential.
If afferent neuron is depolarized to __________, then an action potential is generated and transmitted by that cell to the CNS.
is a decrease over time in the magnitude of the receptor potential in the presence of a constant stimulus.
Slowly adapting
tonic receptors
Slowly adapting receptors
show little adaptation and therefore can function in signaling the intensity of a prolonged stimulus.

musvle stretch receptors
Rapid adapting
phasic receptors
rapid adapting
adapt quickly
detect changes in stimulus intensity.