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51 Cards in this Set

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Pain-established aggression
Animals (including humans) will aggress against other animals or objects when they receive painful stimuli
Aggression Reinforcer
Stimuli resulting from acts of aggression
The aggression principle
-Aversive stimuli and extinction are establishing operations
-for aggression reinforcers
What are the stimuli resulting from acts of aggression?
Stimulation such as pressure on teeth and gums, pressure on fists, etc. that results from violent physical acts
If the physical stimulation is so reinforcing, why don't we aggress all the time?
Because the establishing operation (in this case, the presentation of aversive stimulation or extinction) is missing
Establishing Operation
-A procedure or condition that affects learning and performance
-with respect to a particular reinforcer or aversive condition
What about verbal aggression; what are the aggressive reinforcers there?
No one knows
Are metaphorical analyses of aggression helpful?
No; sayings like "letting off steam" etc tend to encourage aggression in harmful ways

No evidence that aggression has a mental health benefit to the aggressor
What are the reasons given for drug addiction?
-Escape from pain
-Escape from poverty
-Escape from withdrawal
-The pure pleasure of drugs
Escape from Pain
First contingency:
--Before: Patient has pain
--Behavior: Patient pushes button
--After: Patient has less pain

Second:
--Before: Patient has no morphine injection
--E.O.: Patient suffers from pain.
Behavior: Patient pushes button.
After: Patient has morphine injection
Do behavior analysts generally label people?
No. If you label, you tend to fall back on so-called spiritual or genetic causes of behavior.

Behavioral analytic approach works to find the causes in the behavioral contingencies, rather than in the person.
Addictive Reinforcer
-A reinforcer for which
-repeated exposure
-is an establishing operation
Is aggression behavior learned?
All of us learn aggressive behavior because that behavior produces aggression reinforcers.
Are aggression reinforcers learned or unlearned reinforcers?
Unlearned
Is aggression a learned response?
Yes
What's the value of aggression?
-Aggressive behavior kept other animals from taking food away from our ancestors

-Ancestors more likely to survive if a painful attack produced aversive stimulation, which acted as an EO to support aggressive behavior
Why isn't success in battle enough of a reinforcer?
Learning aggressive behavior simply because such behavior allowed escape from painful stimuli of an attack would have taught us too slowly.
Historically, and currently, many explanations of behavior have been nonobservable agents and; therefore, these supposed causes of behavior are not [blank]
testable.
Some common terms to explain motivation behind behavior are: needs, desires, wishes, urges, forces, motives, etc. It is not possible to see these "causes". This means that they are not [blank]
observable.
In everyday "person in the street" psychology, in order to do something an organism must have the [blank] and the [blank] to do it.
"knowledge"
"motivation"
The two most commonly talked about motivative variables are [blank] and [blank].
satiation
deprivation
The topic of [blank] has generally been receiving less coverage in recent behavioral texts than it had in earlier books in the field of behavior analysis.
motivation
The concepts of deprivation and satiation best address the reinforcer value of [blank] reinforcers (reinforcement by the presentation of a stimulus).
Positive
The [blank] of a loose screw cannot be seen as deprivation (ie. the period of deprivation has stayed the same)
presence
To some, these and other questions have demonstrated a need for a more comprehensive concept than [blank] and [blank] to account for "motivating variables."
deprivation
satiation
Behavior analysts use the term [blank blank] to talk about the topic of motivation.
Establishing operation (EO)
An EO is a procedure which can be defined in terms of two effects which alter the sensitivity of an organism's behavior to:
-reinforcement or punishment by particular reinforcers or aversive conditions
-evocation or suppression by associated discriminative stimuli
"Sensitivity" refers to the likelihood that the organism's [blank] will be affected by certain environmental stimuli.
behavior
If an organism's rate of behavior has become more likely to be affected by a particular stimulus, another way of saying this is that the behavior has become more [blank] to that stimulus.
sensitive
The first defining effect of an EO is to establish the sensitivity of an organism's behavior to [blank] or [blank] by certain consequences.
reinforcement or punishment
EOs alter the sensitivity of a behavior to [blank] or [blank] by discriminative stimuli associated with that behavior.
evocation or suppression
Name the two effects EO's have on an organism's behavior which defines them as EO's.
1. reinforcer-establishing effect
2. evocative effect
The reinforcer-establishing effect is that EO's momentarily alter the [blank/blank] effectiveness of other stimulus events.
reinforcing/punishing
The evocative effect of EO's is a momentary change in the [blank] of occurrence of behaviors which have been consequated by events related to that particular EO
frequency
The increase in the frequency of the behavior (asking for a pipe wrench) is an example of the [blank] effect of EO's.
evocative
If a rat is allowed to eat freely (EO), there is a temporary decrease in the reinforcer effectiveness of the food. The [blank] effect of EO's is being discussed in this situation.
reinforcer-establishing
The difference between establishing operations and discriminative stimuli can be seen as the difference between [blank] and [blank].
Discriminative stimuli: availability

EO: effectiveness
If the effectiveness of a reinforcer is altered by a stimulus, that stimulus is acting as an [blank]
establishing operation.
If a rat in a Skinner box only receives food when a light is on and he presses the lever, the light is function as a [blank]
discriminative stimulus
If a rat is deprived of food and placed in a box where it can freely eat if it presses the lever, it will press it often. Food deprivation is acting as an [blank] in this situation.
establishing operation
To "want" something is to have an increase in the momentary [blank] of the behavior(s) which have typically obtained whatever is "wanted."
frequency
The effectiveness of reinforcement is observed [.........] as related to a "want"; therefore, it is inappropriate to use the reinforcer-establishing effect of EOs to explain "wants"
in the future
When a person observes a "want", they are actually observing an increase in [blank] that has, in the past been followed by a particular stimulus.
behavior
The cognitive term "want" can most effectively be explained in the behavioral approach by the [blank] effect of the EO.
evocative
The term unconditioned establishing operation (UEO) refers to [blank] reinforcer-establishing effects.
unlearned
If an establishing operation is effective without [blank] it is considered an unlearned establishing operation.
pairing
The [blank] effect of an establishing operation must be unlearned for it to be categorized as a UEO.
reinforcer-establishing
Neutral stimuli can be paired with [blank blank] or [blank/blank] to become conditioned establishing operations (CEO's)
establishing operations
reinforcers/punishers
As with conditioned reinforcers, CEO's are previously [blank] stimuli.
neutral
In the previously mentioned example of a rat being deprived of food, food deprivation would be an [blank] establishing operation.
unconditioned
The buzzer in a Skinner box is functioning as a [blank] EO.
Conditioned