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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Personality.
A person's unique and consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
What does the Personality Theory attempt to describe and explain?
Similarities and differences in people's patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

-Why people are alike/different/unique.
What are the 4 basic theoretical perspectives in psychology?
1-Psychoanalytic Perspective
2-Humanistic Perspective
3-Social Cognitive Perspective
4-Trait Perspective
Explain the Psychoanalytic Perspective.
Emphasizes the importance of unconscious processes and influences of early child experiences.
Explain the Humanistic Perspective.
-Optiministic look at human nature.
-Emphasizes: Self, Reaching one's full potential.
Explain the Soical Cognitive Perspective.
Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processess.
Explain the Trait Perspective.
Emphasizes description and measurement of personality differences amoung people.
Define Psychoanalysis. Who developed it?
-Theory of personality
-Emphasizes the unconscious behavior (sexual and aggresive)
-Sigmund Freud.
Define Free Association.
Technique where the patient randomly reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images.

-Freud did this to recover lost memories.
What are the 3 levels that Psychological Forces operate at?
Explain the Conscious.
Feelings, thoughts, sensations you are aware of at the moment.
Explain the Preconscious.
Information that you are not currently aware of but can easily bring to conscious.
Explain the Unconscious.
Sumerged thoughts, feelings,etc. that you are not aware of.
What are the 3 basic structures of personality?
Explain Id. What is it ruled by?
-Completely unconscious irrational part of personality that wants to satisfy its urges.
-Ruled by the Pleasure Principle.
-Derived from conflicting instinct drives :life(eros) and death(thantos)
Define Eros.
-Life Instinct
-Reflects biological urges (hunger, thirst)
Define Thantos.
-Death instinct.
-Reflecrts aggresive self destructive actions.
Define Libido.
Engery associated with sexuality.
Define the Pleasure Principle.
Trying to obtain pleasure and avoid tension.
-Most fundamental human motive.
(2) Explain the Ego. What does it operate on?
-Partly conscious rational part of personality.
-Operates on reality principle.
Define the Reality Principle.
Capactity to meet external demands.
(3)Define Superego
-Partly conscious
-Moralistic part of personality
Define Ego Defense Mechanism.
Unconscious distortions of thoughts to reduce anxiety.
What are 3 ego defense mechanisms?
-Repression (unconscious exclusion of anxiety)
-Displacement (unconsciously redirecting target of emotion)
-Sublimination (redirecting sexual urgues to productive activities)
What are the 5 psychosexual stage of development and describe each.
1-Oral (infant gets pleasure from eating chewing)
2-Anal (infant gets pleasure from elimination)
3-Phallic (get pleasure from genitals)
4-Latency (sexual impluses repressed)
5-Genital (reach sexual maturity)
What are 2 parts of fixation?
Define the Oedipus Complex.
A child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite sex parent paired with mean feelings towards same sex parent.
Define Identification.
ego defense mechanism that reduced anxiety by imitating another person.

-also a way to resolve the oedipus complex.
Who are Neo-Freudians?
People who kept the foundation of Freud's ideas but offered new explanations for personality processes.
What 3 major points did neo-freudians disagree with freud on?
1-His belief that beahvior is motivated by sexual urges
2-Him saying that personality is determined by early childhood experiences
3-His pessimistic view of human nature/society.
Define Collective Unconscious.
Part of the unconscious mind that comes from previous generations.
Define Archetypes.
Inherited mental images of human instincts.
What are 2 important archetypes?
1-anima (female qualitied that men have)
2-animus (male qualities that women have)
What 2 basic personality types that Carl Jung discovered.
-Introverts (people who focus attention inward)

-Extroverts (people who focus attention outward)
Karen Horney said there were 3 patterns of behavior that defend against basic anxiety. What are they?
1-Moving toward (need for approval)
2-Against (need for power)
3-Away from other people (need independence)
What are 3 criticism of Freud's theory?
1-Lack of evidence
2-Lack of testibility
Define Humanistic Psychology.
Emphasizes human potential.
Who are 2 of the most important contributors to the Humanistic Perspective?
Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow.
Define Acutalizing Tendency.
-Carl Rogers.
-Innate drive to maintain/enchance human

-All other motives are 2nd to it.
Define Self Concept.
Perceptions and beliefs about yourself.
Define Positive Regard.
Sense of being loved
Define Conditional Positive Regard.
Sense that you will be loved only if you behave in a certain way.
Define Incongruance.
Self concept v. actual experience.
Define Social Cognitive Theory.
Albert Bandura's theory that emohasizes learning.
Define Self Efficacy.
Beliefs people have about their ability to meet demands.
Define Trait.
Stable predisposition to behave in a certain way.
Define Trait Theory.
Focuses on identifying/describing/measureing differences in behavior.
Define Surface Traits.
Personality characteristics that can be easily observed.
Define Source Traits.
Deepest personality characteristics.
Explain the 16f Persontality factors.
-Raymond Cattel made it
Explain Hans Eysenck's 3 dimension model.
2-Neuroticism---Emotional Stability
Define the 5 factor model of personlity.
trait theroy that defines the source traits: extroversion neuoticism, agreeableness, conscientiouness, and openess are the building blocks of personality.
Define Psychological tests.
tests that assess a person's abilities, apititude, personality, etc.
Define Projective tests.
Personality test that has a person interpret an ambiguous situtaion and create a story. The response is thought to be a projection of the unconsciuous.
Define Rorschach Inkblot Test.
Projective test using ink blots .
Define Thematic Apprehension Test.
Prohjective personality test where you create stories about a series of ambiguous scenes.
Define Self-Report Inventory.
test where a person's responses to questions are compared to norms.
Define Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
Inventory that assesses personality characteristics. used to assess disturbed people and candiated for jobs like police officer.
Define California Personality Inventory.
Inventory that assesses personality characteristics in normal population.
Define Sixteen Personality Factor Questionarie 16F.
Inventory by Raymond Cattel that rates on 16 trait dimensions.