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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
absence seizures
minor form of seizure, momentary loss of conscienceness and contact with the environment
Alzheimer disease
a brain disorder that is marked by gradual deterioration of mental capacity, begins in middle age
amyotropic lateral sclerosis
a dengenerative disease of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. presents in adulthood, affects more men than women
brain disorder characterized by seizures
Huntington disease
a hereditary nervous disorder caused by degenerative changes in the cerebrum. causes involuntary movements
multiple sclerosis
a leading cause of disability ages 20 - 40. myelin sheaths on neurons are destroyed in the central nervous system and replaced with plaques of hard tissue
myasthenia gravis
means "grave muscle weakness". an autoimmune disorder. a neuromuscular disorder of voluntary muscles. onset usually with ptosis of upper eyelid, double vision and facial weakness
paralysis, partial or complete.
cerebral palsy is partial and caused by hypoxia to the cerebrum during gestation or birth.
bell palsy affects one side of the face, cause probably a virus
Parkinson disease
nerves in the basal ganglia degenerate, occurs later in life, caused by definiency of dopamine made by basal ganglia cells. tremors, weakness, slowness, stiffness
Tourette syndrome
Tics, involuntary spasms, uncontrolled vocal sounds or words. associated with either excess of dopamine or hypersensitivity to dopamine.
herpes zoster
viral infection affectin peripheral nerves. Known as shingles. blisters and pain. caused by the saime virus as chickenpox.
inflammation of the meninges. casues by bacteria (pyogenic) or virus (aseptic). symptoms are fever, headach, sensitivity to light and stiff neck.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy
affects patients with HIV. encephalitis, dementia, brain tumors
brain tumor in the glia cells, astroglioma, oligodendroglioma and ependymoma
glioblastoma multiforme
most malignant form of an astrocytoma
usually a benign tumor in the meninges of the brain
cerebral concussion
temporary brain dysfunction after an injury. lasts about 24 hours
cerebral contusion
bruising of the brain as a result of trauma
cerebrovascular accident
disruption of blood supply to the brain, a stroke
three types of strokes
caused when a thrombus blocks a blood vessel. can lead to a stroke. may be gradual (thrombotic) or sudden (embolic)
weakening of a blood vessel that can lead to a hemorrhage and stroke
a peculiar sensation apprearing before other symptoms
destruction of myelin sheath
blood clot, clot of material that can travel through the blood stream and cause a stroke
manner of walking
ictal event
suddent, acute onset
blockage as in a stroke
relieves symptoms but doesnt cure
transient ischemic attack, a mini stroke
tonic-clonic seizure
a grand mal seizure
cerebrospinal fluid analysis
measure water, glucose, sodium, chloride, protien, RBC, WBC to detect tumors or virus or infections
cerebral angiography
CT of the brain, cross-section images of the brain and spinal cord. contrast material is used, leaks through the blood-brain barrier to show image
contrast medium is used to Xray subarachnoid space. replaced often with CT or MRI
MRI of the brain
magnetic and radio waves create an image of the brain in all three planes
positron emission tomography
PET scan images produced afer an injection of radioactive glucose or oxygen, provides info on AD, stroke, schizophrenia and epilepsy
doppler/ultrasound studies
uses sound waves to detect the flow of blood in the corotid and intracranial arteries
EEG records the electrical activity of the brain
lumbar puncture
LP cerebrospinal fluid is drawn or medicines may be injected
stereotatic radiosurgery
uses a specialized instrument to locate targets in the brain without surgical incision