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94 Cards in this Set

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BBB
Exchange of 02, glucose, & others btwn blood & cells in the CNS
cross the walls of capillaries
capillaries
smallest blood vessels
capillary walls
composed of a single layer of endothelial cells, which provides a short diffusion distance for exchange.

gases, inorganic ions, monosaccrides
Hydrophobic molecules
__________ __________ diffuse acrosss the membrane of the endothelial cells.
Hydrophilic molecules
_________ _________ diffuse through large pores (gaps) btwn endothelial cells.
actively transported
Cells & large molecules (protein) are TOO large to diffuse through gaps. Instead, they must be ________ ___________ across endothelial cells through transcytosis.
transcytosis
movement of a molecule across an endothelial cell by endocytosis into the cell followed by exocytosis out of the cell.
hydrophilic
hydrophobic
In CNS, no transcytosis can occur, and __________ molecules cross cap. walls are restricted by BBB. It allows ___________ molecules through.
BBB
a physical barrier that exists btwn blood & CSF
CSF
a fluid in the CNS
BBB
physical barrier that exists btwn blood & CSF
due to presence of tight junctions btwn capillary endothelial cells

eliminates cap. pores & restrict the diffusion of hydrophobic molecules btwn cells.
Astrocytes
protects CNS from harmful substances that are in the blood.
molecules must cross the endothelial cells themselves
hydrophilic substances
selectively permeable
Astrocytes
stimulate endothelial cells to develop & maintain tight junctions by unknown mechanisms.
choline & aspirin
What 2 hydrophilic molecules CAN diffuse through the BBB?
inorganic ions
Because these are transport proteins, they CAN NOT penetrate the BBB.
permeability
_________ of BBB is the main contrast btwn the CSF & plasma.
Spinal Tap
a procedure that adequately diagnoses diseases of the CNS.
brain
forebrain
cerebellum
brainstem
forebrain
the largest & most sup. part of the brain, divided into lft. and rgt. halves (hemispheres) & consists of cerebrum & diencephalon.
cerebellum
large
C-shaped structure
gray & white matter
gray matter includes cerebral cortex @ surface & deep subcortical nuclei.
Diencephalon
thalamus & hypothalamus
midline structures near base of forebrain contain multiple small nuclei.
cerebellum
"little brain"
bilaterally symmetrical structure w/an outer cortex & inner nuclei similar to the forebrain
Inf. to forebrain
Dorsal to brainstem
Motor coordination & balance, and provides feedback to motor systems to smooth movement of eye & body.
Brainstem
caudalmost part of brain
connects to forebrain & cerebellum to spinal cord
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla Oblongata
contain nuclei
processing centers for 10/12 pairs of cranial nerves
reticular formation
reg. of many involuntary functions controlled by the ANS
Midbrain
rostral & connects to forebrain
Pons
Mid-portion
connects to cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata
caudal portion & connects to spinal cord
Cerebral Cortex
outmost portion of cerebrum
high convoluted layer of gray matter
grooves or sulcus's
ridges or gyri
most advanced area of brain
1 billion neurons & 1 trillion synapses
6 functional layers
highest level of neural processing
acts as an intergrating center
receives sensory input from diff. origins, consolidates this info, and formulates thoughts & actions.
perceives environment, formulate ideas, experience emotions, recall past events, & command our body movements.
Reticular formation
a diffuse network of nuclei important in sleep-wake cycles, arousal of cerebral cortex, and consiousness.
Frontal lobe
ant. part of brain
Parietal lobe
post. part of brain
central sulcus
The frontal and parietal lobes are divided by a _______ _______.
Occipital lobe
Post. and Inf. to parietal lobe
visual cortex
it processes visual info
Temporal lobe
Inf. to parietal & frontal lobes
auditory cortex
functions in hearing
lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure)
The occipital and temporal lobe are separated by a groove called ________ ______.
Parietal lobe
primary somatosensory cortex
primary somatosensory cortex
processes somatic sensory info associated w/both surface sensations such as touch, itch, temp. & pain awareness of muscle tensions & joint & limb positions (proprioception)
Frontal lobe
primary motor cortex
contains area involved in language and planning
establishment of personality
primary motor cortex
initiates voluntary movement, and other areas involved in motor control.
cerebral cortex function
topography
somatopic organization
motor homunculus
sensory homunculus
association areas
topography
meaning areas of the cerebral cortex can be mapped according to their function.
Brain lateralization
Certain brain function are dominant on one side of the brain relative to the other, an organization called _______ ______________.
not absolute
motor homunculus
map that indicates which areas of the primary motor cortex in the frontal lobe are devoted to particular regions of the body.
sensory homunculus
map that indicates wich areas of the primary somatosensory cortex are devoted to particular regions of the body.
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex involved in complex processing that requires integrating different types of info.
right brained
associated w/movement of the left side of the body
sensory perception of stimuli to the left side of the body.
spatial orientation
creativity
music
dream imagery
philosophy
intuition
left brained
associated w/ movement of the right side of the body
sensory perception of stimuli to the right side of the body
logic and analytical processing, strong language capabilities, and math skills
split brain
patient who had their corpus collosum cut in their brain as a treatment for epilepsy so that that the left and right sides of the brain are separated.
subcortical nuclei
regions of gray matter located within the cerebrum.
basal nuclei
caudate nucleus
globus pallidus
putamen
basal nuclei
notable for their role in modifying movement
found in subcortical nuclei.
Diencephalon
lies inf. to the cerebrum
thalamus
hypothalamus
thalamus
a cluster of nuclei
sensory info follows a pathway which goes through the _________ to the cerebral cortex. (except smell)
sensory input is filtered through the _________ before transmitted to the cortex.
important in directing attention (mom and crying baby instead of airplane)
big role in controlling movement.
hypothalamus
inf. to the thalamus
regulates homeostasis
link btwn communication of the endocrine and nervous systems.
neural or hormone input sends a signals to release tropic hormones that reg. the ant. pit. hormones.
also controls the release of post. pit. hormones
hypothalamus
contains satiety and hunger centers
reg. eating behaviors
the thirst center
part of the limbic system
responses exert through actions of ANS.
direct and indirect inputs to ANS
reg. body temp
generates and regulates the circadian rhythm.
suprachiasmatic nucleus
The ______________ ________ of the hypothalamus generates and regulates the circadian rhythm, endogenous fluctuations in body functions that occur on a 24 hour cycle.
limbic system
a diverse collection of closely associated cortical regions, subcortical nuclei, and tracts in the forebrain that function in learning emotions.
amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, cingulate gyrus of the cerebral cortex
portions of thalamus and hypothalamus
"primative" areas of the brain
amygdala
one of the oldest regions of the brain
involved in memory and emotions, esp. fear.
hippocampus
involved in learning and memory
CNS
Most tasks carried out by the ___ require the coordination action of many different areas working together.
reflex arcs
The receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector involved in a particular reflex; interneurons may be present, depending on the reflex considered.
reflex
A rapid, automatic response to a stimulus.
spinal reflex
the highest level of integration occurs in the spinal cord

What reflex?
cranial reflex
require participation by the brain

What reflex?
somatic reflex
involve signals sent via somatic neurons to skeletal muscle

What reflex?
autonomic reflex
visceral
involve signals sent via autonomic neurons to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands.

What reflex?
innate reflex
inborn

What reflex?
conditioned reflex
learned

What reflex?
monosynaptic reflex
the neural pathway consists of only 2 neurons and a single synapse

What reflex?
polysynaptic reflex
contain more than 2 neurons and multiple synapses

What reflex?
salvation reflex
founded by Ivan Povlov
a conditioned reflex
reflex arc
1. stimulus
2. Sensory receptor
3. Afferent neuron
4. Integration center (CNS)
5. Efferent neuron
6. Effector organ (muscle, gland)
7. response
muscle spindle stretch reflex
monosynaptic reflex in response to stretch of the muscle
(knee-jerk)
withdrawl reflex
when body is subjected to painful stimuli, it withdraws fro the stimulus automatically via when a person steps on a tack.
nocireceptors
Stepping on a tack is perceived as painful because it activates special sensory receptors called ____________, which respond to intense stimuli that are damaging to tissue.
afferent
_________ neurons from nocireceptors transmit info to the spinal cord, where they have excitatory synapses on interneurons.
cross-extensor reflex
When a painful stumulus triggers the withdrawl reflex, another reflex is initiated simultaneously.

reflex extension of a limb when anoxious stimulus is applied to the limb on the other side of the body.
somatic spinal reflexes
The stretch reflex and withdrawl are examples of _________ _______ reflexes.
pupillary light reflex
autonomic cranial reflex
the stimulus is the light entering one eye and activating photoreceptors.

Photoreceptors activate afferent neurons transmit signals to midbrain of the brainstem (integrating center).

Efferent neurons are activated and innervate the smooth muscle surrounding the pupil of both eyes.

The pupil constricts.
Cerebellum in motor coordination
"guidance system" for movement
compares actual movements with the plans from the cortex

makes corrections in the force and direction of movement whenever it detects a discrepency.

maintains muscle tones

store memories of motor activities
cerebellum activity
must receive info from cortex of planned movements

continually updated how motions are actually being carried out.

receive input from sensorimotor areas of cortex, the basal nuclei, the brainstem, and spinal cord.

Sends signals back to the cortex (via thalamus) so cortex can adjust it output to complete planned movement.
intention tremor
a sometimes violent shaking motion that occurs only when a person makes a voluntary movement.
emotions
highly subjective
cerebral cortex, limbic system, and hypothalamus
triggered by sensory input or memories
amygdala (fear & anxiety)
hypothalamus (anger & agression)
"emotional response"
autonomic (heart rate, digestion)
motor
hormonal changes
Motivations
impulse that drives our actions
can be physiological
driven by emotions action in the absense of any obvious physiological drives.
Pleasure
In brain, there are "pleasure centers"
To satisfy the body, alcohol, opoiods, amphetamines, or nicotine stimulates euphoria and acts on pleasure centers.
addiction
dopaminergic systems
Associative learning
type of learning that requires making connections btwn 2 or more stimuli
Nonassociative learning
repitition of a single stimulus and includes the processes of habituation and sensitization.
Habituation
a decrease in response to a repeated stimulus

(hammering and studying)
Sensitization
an increase in response to repeated stimulus.

(eating something yucky and having to eat all of it)
Procedural memory
the memory of learned motor skills and behaviors.

It's like riding a bike, you never forget

cerebellum, basal nuclei, and pons.
Declarative memory
the memory of learned experiences, such as facts and events and other things that can be stated verbally.

ability to remember and explain what generates action potentials is an example
Short term memory
temporary storage lasting only a few seconds or up to a few hours

limited space is avaible

memory will be lost if it is not consolidated into long term memory.
long term memory
can last years or a lifetime.

repitition appears to help

consolidation is not well understood, but is important
plasticity
the limited ability to alter its anatomy and function in response to changes in its activity patterns.

function of existing synapses can be altered for long periods of time (hours to days)

new synaptic connections can develop.

new neurons are produced in areas that involve memories.

long term potentiation
long term potentiation
1st discovered in the hippocampus of the brain

repetitive stimulation of a particular synapse enevytrally leads to an increase in the strangth of that synaptic connection; that is, repetition increases the likelihood that synaptic input will be able to trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic cell.
long term potentiation
increase in synaptic strength because of the EPSPs generated in the postsynaptic cell.

synaptic strength due to sensitivity to the neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic cell w/ each action potential

impotant in the consolidation of long-term memory