Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/180

Click to flip

180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
systolic pressure
blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles
discuss the hormones and functions of the anterior pituitary (con't)
Follicle-stimulating hormone, follice maturation and estrogen secretion in females, spermatogenesis in males; Luteninizing hormone; ovulation, progesterone production in female, testosterone production in male
Summarize the events of a complete cardiac cycle and correlate the heart sounds heard with a stethoscope with these events
cardiac cycle is alternating contraction and relaxation in one heartbeat; systole is contraction phase, diastole is relaxation phase; the first heart sound, the lubb, is caused by closure of the AV valves at the beginning of ventricular systole; the second heart sound, the dupp, is caused by closure of the semilunar valves at the beginning of ventricular diastole
Compare the actions of the nervous system and the endocrine system
Both function in the regulation of body activities Nervous acts through electrical impulses and neuro transmitters; is short lived and localized
Endocrine acts through chemical messengers called hormones; is more generalized and of a longer duration
pulse
expansion and recoil of arteries caused by contraction and relaxation of the heart
discuss the hormones and functions of the pineal gland
melatonin; inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which consequently inhibits reproductive functions, regulates daily rhythms such as sleep and wakefulness
conduction myofibers
cardiac muscle cells specialized for conducting action potentials to the myocardium; part of the conduction system of the heart; also called Purkinje fibers
Compare the major chemical classes of hormones
Either proteins or steroids; all proteins or protein derivatives except sex hormones and those from the adrenal cortex; protein hormones must be administered by injection; steroids can be taken orally b/c they are lipid-soluble
Describe the structure and function of capillaries
capillaries are microscopic vessels that form a connection between arteries and veins; primary function is the exchange of materials between the blood and tissue cells; only a thin simple squamos epithelium with a basement membrane
discuss the hormones and functions of the adrenal medulla
epinephrine, orepinephrine; helps cope with stress, increases heart rate and blood pressure, increases blood flow to skeletal muscel, increases blood glucose level
cardiac output
the volume pumped from one ventricle in one minute; usualy measured from the left ventricle
Discuss the general mechanisms of hormone action
Cells in a target tissue have receoptor sites for specific hormones. Protein hormones react with receptors on the surface of the cell; relatively rapid results. Steroid hormones typically react with receptor sites inside a cell; relatively slow
peripheral resistance
opposition to blood flow caused by friction of the blood vessel walls
discuss the hormones and functions of the parathyroid gland
parathyroid hormone--increases blood calcium, increases calcium absorption in the digestive tract, decreases calcium lost in urine
Characterize the different blood types and explain why some are incompatible for transfusions
Type A blood has A antigens, B has B, AB has both, O has neither; incompatible when recipients atingens react with donor antigens; type O is universal donor, type AB is universal recipient
explain what is meant by stroke volume and cardiac output and describe the factors that affect these values
stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped from a ventricle each time the ventricle contracts; influenced by end-iastolic volume and contraction strength; cardiac out put is the volume of blood pumped by a ventricle in one minute; equals heart rate times stroke volume; anything that affects either affects the cardiac output
agglutinin
a specific substance in plasma that is capable of causing a clumping of red blood cells; an anitbody
vasodilation
an enlarging of blood vessels; increase in the size of the lumen of blood vessels
discuss the hormones and functions of the pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
glucagon, increases breakdown of glycogen to increase blood glucose levels; insulin, decreases blood glucose levels, stimulates glucose storage as glycogen and production of adipose
cardiac cycle
a complete heartbeat consisting of contraction and relaxation of botha tria and both ventricles
describe the composition of blood plasma
plasma is the liquid portion of blood; it is 90% water and 10% solutes; plasma proteins are the most abudant of the solutes in plasma; three major classes are albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
Korotkoff sounds
the sounds heard in the stethoscope while taking blood pressure
name and describe the function of at least one hormone from the small intestine
secretin, stimulates the pancreas to produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes the stomach acid; cholecystokinin, stimulates contraction of the gallbladder which releases bile, also stimulates the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes
stroke volume
the volume of blood ejected from one ventricle during one contraction; normally about 70 mL
Describe the physical characteristics of blood
blood is a liquid connective tissue that measure about 5 liters in the adult human and accounts for 8% of the body weight. Its normal pH range is 7.35 to 7.45
vasoconstriction
a narrowing of blood vessels; decrease in the size of the lumen of blood vessels
discuss the hormones and functions of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
antidiuretic hormone; increases water reabsorption; oxytocin, increass uterine contractions, stimulates ejection of milk from mammary gland
atrioventricular valve
valves between atria and ventricles; right AV valve is the tricuspid valve; the left AV vlave is the bicuspid, or mitral, valve
negative feedback
a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus
describe the structure and funcion of arteries
Arteries carry blood away from the heart; blood is oxygenated in systemic arteries, low O2 content in pulmonary arteries; innermost layer of the arterial wall is simple squamous epithelium, middle is smooth muscle, outer layer is connective tissue
Discuss the hormones and functions of the anterior pituitary gland (aka hypophysis)
growth hormone, stimulates growth by promoting protein synthesis; thyroid-stimulating hormone, increases secretion of thyroid hormone; Adrenocorticotropic hormone, incrases secretion of adrenocortical hormones, especially glucocortoids such as cortisol;
Describe the components and function of the conduction system of the heart
the conduction system consists of specialized cardiac muscle cells: the sinoatrial (SA) node which initiates impulses 70 to 80 x minute, called pacemaker of the heart; AV node, atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of His), right and left bundle branches, conduction myofibers--order impulse travels
endocrine gland
glands that secrete their product directly into the blood
describe the structure and function of veins
veins carry blood toward the heart; they havethe same layers as arteries but thinner walls and have valves to prevent backflow of blood
discuss the hormones and functions of the thyroid gland
thyroxine and triiodothyronine, inceases metabolic rate, essential for normal growth and development; calcitonin, decreases blood calcium, antagonistic to parathyroid hormone
systole
contraction phase of the cardiac cycle; opposite of diastole
hormone
a substance secreted by an endocrine gland
diastolic pressure
blood pressure in the arteries during relaxation of the ventricles
discuss the hormones and functions of the thymus
thymosin; immune system development and function
diastole
relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle; opposite of systole
identify the layers of the heart wall and state the type of tissue in each layer
the outer layer of the heart wall is the epicardium (serous membrane that consists of connective tissue covered by simple squamous epithelium); the middle layer is the myocardium (cardiac muscle tissue); the inner layer is the endocardium (a layer of simple squamous epithelium overlying connective tissue)
semilunar valve
valve between a ventricle of the heart and the vessel that carries blood away from the ventricle; also pertains to the valves in veins
name and describe the function of at least one hormone from the gastric mucosa
gastrin, stimulates the production of hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin, which are used in the digestion of food
name the two parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and state where they are located
macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells; he region of contact between the acsending limb of the nephron loop and the afferent arteriole
adenohypophysis
anterior portion of the pituitary gland
discuss how oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, and water move across capillary walls
oxygen, carbon dioxide, and glucose move across the capillary wall by diffusion; filtration involves hydrostatic pressure (in this case, blood pressure) to force water molecules through the capillary wall; fluid moves out of the capillary at the arteriole end and returns at the venule end
name and describe the function of at least one hormone from the placenta
human chorionic gonadotropin--signals to the ovaries to secrete hormones to maintain th uterine lining so that it does not degenerate and slough off in menstruation; also produces estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy
describe the 3 layers of miniges around the CNS
outer layer-dura mater-tough white fibrous connective tissue, contains dural sinuses that collect venous blood & return it to the cardiovascular system; middle-arachnoid-looks like a cobweb-numerous strands that attach it to the innermost layer-pia mater-thin delicate membrane tightly bound to surface of brain and spinal cord closely follows all surface contours
state the two characteristics of specific defense mechanisms and identify the two principal cells involved in specific resistance
specificity and memory; lymphocytes and macrophages
discuss the hormones and functions of the adrenal cortex
mineralocorticoids, increases sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in kidney tubules, increases water retention; glucocorticoids, increases blood glucose levels, inhibits inflammation and immune respons; androgens and estrogens, secreted in small amounts so that effect is generally masked by the hormones from the ovaries and testes
Describe the sequence of events involved in the contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber
table p. 128
discuss the life cycle of erythrocytes
live for about 120 days then are destroyed by the spleen and liver; under typical conditions, over 2 million erythrocytes are destroyed and replaced every second
identify the major systemic veins
sup.&inf. vena cava, ex.&int. jugular, subclavian, brachiocephalic, radial, ulnar, brachial, axillary, basilic, cephalic, median cubital, azygos, hepatic, right suprarenal, renal, gonadal, splenic, sup.& inf mesenteric,hepatic portal, R&L gastric, int.&ext. iliac, common iliac, ant.&pos. tibial, peroneal, popliteal, femoral, small & great saphenous
discuss the hormones and functions of the gonads
testes produce testosterone, maturation and maintenance of male reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics; ovaries produce: estrogens, same as testosterone except in females, also menstrual cycle; progesterone, prepares uterus for pregnancy, stimulates development of mammary gland, menstrual cycle
compare the structure and function of neurons and neuroglia
neurons conduct nerve impulses and have no mitosis; neuroglia support, nourish, and protect neurons, are more numerous than neurons, and can go through mitosis
differentiate between hormones and prostaglandins
hormones are produced by endocrine glands; prostaglandins are produced by cells widely distributed throughout the entire body; hormones may effect far from point of origin, prostaglandin has localized effect-immediate and short term, cannot be stored, must be synthesized "on demand", dietary deficiency of arachidonic acid results in inability to do this
discuss four primary factors that affect blood pressure
four major factors that affect blood pressure are cardiac output, blood volume, peripheral resistance, and viscosity; when cardiac output increases so does BP; when blood volume decreases so does BP; increased peripheral resistance by vasoconstriction increases BP; if the # of erythrocytes increases the blood becomes more viscous and BP increases
name and describe the function of at least one hormone from the heart
atrial natriuretic hormone, or atriopeptin--loss of sodium and water in urin which causes a decrease in blood volume and blood pressure
describe how energy is provided for muscle contraction and how oxygen debt occurs
initial sour of energy is ATP (lasts 6sec), creatine phosphate and ADP regenerate ATP (10sec), then fatty acids & glucose become the primary energy sources, O2 dept is defined as the addt'l O2 required after physical activity to restore resting conditions-paid back by labored breathing-caused by using up O2 in aerobic metabolizing of glucose and fatty acids
target tissue
a tissue that responds to a particular hormone because it has receptor sites for that hormone
discuss the factors that affect blood flow through arteries, capillaries, and veins
blood flows in the same direction as the decreasing pressure gradient: arteries to capillaries to veins; blood flow is slowest in capillaries; when resistance increases, blood flow decreases; venous blood flow depends on skletal muscle action, respiratory movements, and contraction of smooth muscle in venous walls
identify the major vessels that supply blood to the myocardium and return the deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
right and left coronary arteries, branches of the ascending aorta, supply blood to the walls of the myocardium; cardiac veins drain into the coronary sinus, which opens into the right atrium
describe the structure of a synapse and how an impulse is conducted from one neuron to another across the synapse
synaptic knob, synaptic cleft, postsynaptic membrane; synaptic knobs are tiny bulges at the end o fthe eloendria that contain small sac called synaptic vesicles which contain neurotransmitters; when an impulse reaches the knob, the neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft and react with receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane
thrombocyte
one of the formed elements of the blood, which functions in blood clotting, also called platelet
describe the mechanisms and pressures that move gases and fluids across capillary walls
substances pass through the capillary wall by diffusion, filtration, and osmosis; diffusion follows the concentration gradient; filtration involves blood pressure generated by ventricular contractions; protein molecules too large to pass through the capillary wall remain in the plasma and create an osmotic pressure in the blood
label a diagram of the heart, identifying the chambers, valves, and associated vessels
draw diagram
antagonist
a muscle that has an action opposite to the prime mover
erythrocyte
red blood cell
secondary response
rapid and intense reaction to antigens on second and subsequent exposures due to memory cells
trace the pathway of blood flow throught the heart, including chambers, valves, and pulmonary circulation
venous blood from systemic circulation enters the right atrium through the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava, flows through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle, passes throght the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk, then into the pulmonary arteries, which carry the blood to the lungs, then pulmonary veins carry the blood to the left atrium, flows through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle and then through the aortic semilunar valve into the ascending aorta and back into systemic circulation
list the 5 basic components of a reflex arc
receptor, sensory neuron, center, motor neuron, effector
coagulation
the process of blood clotting
list the components of the lymphatic system, describe their structure, and explain their functions
lymph is the fluid in the lymphatic vessels, lymphatic vessels carry fluid away from the tissues, lymph nodes are small bean shaped structures that filter the lymph before it is returned to the blood, the spleen is similar but larger and filters blood and also acts as a blood reservoir, the thymus is bi-lobed and T cells mature there
diapedesis
the process by which white blood cells squeeze between the cells in a vessel wall to enter the tissue spaces outside the blood vessel
sarcomere
a functional contractile unit in a skeletal muscle fiber
exocrine gland
a gland that secretes its product to a surface or cavity through ducts
list five classes of immunoglobulins and state the role each has in immunity
IgG-inactivates antigen, netralizes toxins, crosses placenta to provide immunity for newborn; IgA-protects mucous membranes on body surfaces; IgM-causes antigens to clump together; IgD-receptor sites for antigens on B cells; IgE-binds to mast cells and basophils causing release of histamine
describe the mechanisms that reduce blood loss after trauma
stoppage of blood loss called hemostasis; includes vascular constriction to restrict blood flow, platelet plug formation to obstruct the tear, and coagulation starts with formation of prothrombin activator, continues with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, and ends with fibrinogen changing to fibrin. Calcium and vitamin K are necessary for clot formation
describe the sequence of events that lead to an action potential when the cell membrane is stimulated and how the impulse is conducted along the length of a neuron
bulleted list at bottom of 159 and top of 160
Describe the functions of blood
blood functions as a transport medium; it also has roles in temperature regulation, fluid and electrolyte balance, pH regulation, prevention of fluid loss, and disease prevention
trace blood through the pulmonary circuit from the right atrium to the left atrium
pump is the right ventricle; right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, right and left pulmonary arteries, lungs, capillaries of the lungs, pulmonary venules, pulmanary veins, left atrium
agglutination
clumping of red blood cells or microorganisms; typically an antigen-antibody reaction
synergist
a muscle that assistas a prime mover but is not capable of producing the movement by itself
leukocyte
white blood cell
natural immunity
immunity acquired through normal processes of daily living
describe the size and location of the heart
the heart is about the size of a closed fist, with two thirds of the mass to the left of the midline
ventilation
movement of air into and out of the lungs; breathing
hemocytoblast
a stem cell in the bone marrow from which the blood cells arise
susceptibility
lack of resistance to disease
identify the formed elements of the blood and state at least one function for each formed element
erythrocytes; main function is to transport oxygen; leukocytes: neutrophils are phagocytic and engulf bacteria; eosinophils counteract the effects of histamine; basophils secrete histamine and heparin; lymphocytes attack bacteria/ produce antibodies; monocytes are phagocytic; thrombocytes (platelets) function in blood clotting
chyme
the semifluid mixture of food and gstric juice that leaves the stomach through the pyloric sphincter
hematopoiesis
blood cell production, which occurs in the red bone marrow; also called hemopoiesis
immunoglobulin
substance produced by the body that inactivates or destroys another substance that is introduced into the body, antibody
neurohypophysis
posterior portion of the pituitary gland
summarize carbohydrate, protein, and lipid digestion by writing equations that show the intermediate and final products and the enzymes that facilitate the digestive process
p. 346
differentiate between five types of leukocytes on the basis of their structure
Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils; Agranulocytes: monocytes and lymphocytes; Neutrophils have mulilobed nucleus and small granules; eosinophils two lobed nucles and large granules; basophils, nucleus has two lobes or is U shaped; lymphocytes, large spherical nucleus, small cytoplasm; monocytes, U or beam shaped nucleus, abundant cytoplasm
Briefly describe the mechanism of antibody-mediated immunity and list two subgroups of B cells
B cells are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity, they produce antibodies that react with the antigen or substances produced by the antigen; memory B cells and B cells
describe and illustrate movements acceomplished by the contraction of skeletal muscles
p. 134-135 in text for description and illustration of: flexion, dorsiflexion, extension, plantar flexion, herextension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation, inversion, supination, eversion, pronation
distinguish between the primary response and the secondary response to a pathogen
the initial action of antibody producion and transportation is the primary response; upon second exposure to same antigen memory cells launch a rapid and intense second response
compare the absorption of simple sugars and amino acids with that of lipid related molecules
simple sugars and amino acids are absorbed into the blood capillaries in the villi of the small intestine and then are transported to the liver in the hepatic portal vein; fatty acids, monoglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins enter the lacteals (lymph capillares) in the villi of the small intestine
resistance
body's ability to counteract the effects of pathogens and other harmful agents
describe the structure of a skeletal muscle, including its connective tissue coverings
each muscle fiber is surrounded by endomysium, fibers are collected into bundles coverby perimysium, bundles (fasciculi) are wrapped together by the epimysium to form a whole muscle
discuss how blood pressure is regulated
baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus are important for short-term BP regulation; angiotensin causes vasoconstriction and promotes the release of aldosterone, both increase BP
absorption
the passage of digestive end products from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph
passive immunity
immunity that results when an individual receives the immune agents from some source other than his or her own body
origin
the end of a muscle that is attached to a relatively immovable part; the end opposite the insertion
identify the major systemic arteries
R&L coronary-brachiocephalic-R&L common carotid-R&L subclavian-intercostal-celiac sup./inferior mesenteric-renal-gonadal-lumbar, R&L common iliac, external/ internal carotid-vertebral-basilar-axillary-brachial-ulnar-radial-common hepatic-left gastric-splenic-suprarenal-ex./internal iliac-femoral-popliteal-anterior and posterior tibial-dorsal pedis-peroneal
bronchopulmonary segment
portion of a lung surrounding a tertiary, or segmental, bronchus; lobule of the lung
state three functions of the lymphatic system
returns excess interstitial fluid to the blood, absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins, and provides defense against disease
insertion
the end of a muscle that is attached to a relatively movable part; the end opposite the origin
antigen
a substance that triggers an immune response when it is introduced into the body
describe the structure and function of the liver
two major lobes, two smaller lobes, functional units are lobules with siusoid that carry blood afrom the periphery to the central vein of the lobule; fucntions: secretion, synthesis of bile salts, synthesis of plasma proteins, storage, detoxification, excretionnn, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, filtering
active immunity
immunity that is produced as the result of an encounter with an antigen, with subsequent production of memory cells
actin
contractile protein in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle cells
antibody
substance produced by the body that inactivates or destroys another substance that is introduced into the body; immunoglobulin
describe the role of stretch receptors in regulating breathing
stretch receptors in the lungs initiate the Hering-Breuer reflex that prevents overinflation of the lungs
briefly describe the mechanism of cell-mediated immunity and list four subgroups of T cells
T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity in which T cells directly attack the invading antigen; Killer T cells, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cells, memory T cells
glomerular capsule
double-layered epithelial cup that surrounds the glomerulus in a nephron; also called Bowman's capsule
give examples of active natural immunity, active artificial immunity and passive artificial immunity
active natural: chicken pox, active artificial: vaccines; passive natural: through placenta and breastmilk; passive artificial: antiserum (such as tetnus or rabies shots)
describe the structures and features of the lower respiratory tract
trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs; hyaline cartilage keeps trachea from collapsing; bronchi branch into smaller & smaller passageways until they terminate in alveoli; right lung, 3 lobes, left, 2
artificial immunity
immunity that requires some deliberate action, such as a vaccination, to achieve exposure to the potentially harmful antigen
nephron
functional unit of the kidney consisting of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule
describe the origin of lymph and describe the mechanisms that move the fluid through lymphatic vessels
is derived from blood plasma as luids pass through capillary walls at the arterial end; pressure gradients that move fluid through the lymphatic vessels come from the skeletal muscel action, respiratory movements, and contraction of smooth muscle in vessel walls
Describe factors that influence respiratory volumes and capacities
age, sex, body build, physical conditioning; lungs decline after early adulthood; females have 20-25% less volume than males; tall people / slender people tend to have greater capacity; pysical conditioning can increase capacity 40%; reduced elasticity reduces capacity
list four nonspecific mechanisms that provide resistance to disease and explain how each functions
barriers deter microbial invasion; body chemicals stimulate phagocytosis and inflammation; phagocytosis is the ingestion and destruction of solid particles by certain cells (primarily neutrophils and macrophages); inflammation is aimed at localizing the damage and destroying its source and sets the stage for tissue repair
juxtaglomerular apparatus
complex of modified cells in the afferent arteriole and the ascending limb/distal tubule in the kidney, which helps regulate blood presure by secreting renin; consists of the macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells
describe the blood supply to the brain
blood supply for the brain is provided by the interal carotid and vertebral arteries; most of the arteries that supply blood to the brain branch from the circle of Willis
name and describe the location of the three major types of salivary glands and describe the functions of the slaiva they produce
parotid glands on each side near molars; submandibular glands along floor othe mouth; sublingual glands in the floodr of the mouth anterior to submandibular glands; functions: cleansing action on teeth, moistens and lubricates food, begins chemical digestion of starches through amylase
describe five features of fetal circulation that make it different from adult circulation
the umbilical cord contains two arteries to carry fetal blood to the placenta and one umbilical vein to carry oxygen and nutrient rich blood from the placenta to the fetus, the ductus venousus allows blood to bypass the immature liver, the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus are modifications that permit blood to bypass the lungs
list the characteristics and functions of muscle tissue
Char: excitability, contractility, extensibility, elasticity
Func: movement, posture, joint stability, heat production
primary response
the initial reaction of the immune system to a specific antigen
describe the role of temperature in regulating breathing
an increase in body temperature increases breathing rate
rugae
longitudinal folds in the mucosa of the stomach
external respiration
exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
locate, identify, and describe the actions of the major muscles of the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
p. 136, p. 138, p. 140, p. 144
name two regions in the brain that make up the respiratory center and two nerves that carry impulses from the center
medulla oblongata and pons; phrenic nerve and intercostal nerves
prime mover
the muscle that is is mainly responsible for a particular body movement; also called atagonist
define five activities or functions of the respiratory process
ventilation: breathing; external respiration:exchange of gases between lungs and blood; transport of gases: from blood to and from tissue cells; internal respiration: exchange of gases between blood and tissue cells; cellular respiration: cells utilize oxygen for their specific activities
compare the different types of muscle contractions
isotonic, isometric, tonic, twitch, tetany, treppe, convulsion, fibrillation
(see descriptions on p.77-78 of study guide)
describe the structure and function of the gallbladder
pear-shaped sac attached to the visceral surface of the liver by the cystic duct; stores and concentrates bile
mesentery
extensions of peritoneum that are associated with the intestine
internal respiration
exchange of gases between the blood and tissue cells
intravascular fluid
portion of extra cellular fluid that is in the blood; plasma
distinguish between external respiration and internal respiration
external respiration is the exhcange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the lungs and the blood in the surrounding capillaries; internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the tissue cells and the blood in the tissue capillaries
motor unit
a single neuron nd all the muscle fibers it stimulates
list six functions of the digestive system
ingestion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, movements, absorption, elimination
intracellular fluid
the fluid inside body cells
discuss factors that govern the diffusion of gases into and out of the blood
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas independently; Henry's law: when a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gas dissolves in the liquid in proportion to its own solubility and partial pressure
describe the location and structural features of the kidney
located retroperitoneally between the levels of the 12th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae; bean shaped with an indentation called the hilum on the medial side; the cortex and medulla make up the parenchyma of the kidney; central region is renal pelvis which collects urine as it is produced
bronchial tree
the bronchi and all their branches that function as passageways between the trachea and the alveoli
neuromuscular junction
the area of communication between the axon terminal of a motor neuron and the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber; also called a myoneural junction
describe the structure of the lungs including shape, lobes, and membranes
cone shaped; hilum: point of attachment; right, 3 lobes, left, 2; left lung has cardiac notch; each enclosed by double layered serous membrane: pleura; visceral pleura attached to surface; parietal pleura lines wall of thorax; b/t visceral & parietal is pleural cavity containing serous fluid
trace the pathway of blood flow through the kidney from the renal artery to the renal vein
renal artery, segmental arteries pass through renal sinus, interlobar arteries pass through renal columns, arcuate arteries pass over base of pyramids, interlobular arteries extend into the cortex, affernt arterioles, cappilaries in the glomerulus of renal corpuscle, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, interlobular veins, arcuate veins, interlobar veins, segmental veins, renal veins
alveolus
small sac-shaped structure; most often used to denote the microscopic dilations of terminal bronchioles in the lungs where diffusion of gases occurs; air sacs in the lungs
renal tubule
tubular portion of the nephron that carries the filtrate away from the glomerular capsule and where tubular reabsorption and secretion occurs
describe the structures and features of the upper respiratory tract
nose, pharynx, and larynx; frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses open into nasal cavity; pharyngeal, palatine, and lingual tonsils are in pharynx;larynx is formed by nine cartilages; thyroid cartilage is the Adam's apple; epilglottis keeps food out of larynx; two pairs of vocal cords, true and false (vestibular folds)
myosin
contractile protein in the thick filaments of skeletal muscle cells
surfactant
a substance produced by certain cells in lung tissue that reduces surface tension between fluid molecules that line the respiratory membrane and helps keep the alveolus from collapsing
alkalosis
condition in which the blood has a higher pH than normal
describe the structure and function of the pancreas
elongated and flattened organ; head end is on right side with the curve of the duodenum, tail end is on left side next to spleen; secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine
idetify the bands and lines that make up the striations on myofibers nadrelate these striation to actin and myosin
I band-actin (thin) filaments, Zline-bisect I band; protein disk that serves as a point of attachment for the actin molecules; A Bands-myosin (thick) filaments; aleternates with I band; three subdivded regions: Zone of overlap-at ends where actin overlaps myosin, H zone/band-central region-only myosin; M line-bisects H band, where thick filaments interconnect
describe the role of chemoreceptors in regulating breathing
central chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are sensitive to increases in CO2 and H+ levels; the receptors stimulate the respiratory center to increase rate and depth of breathing; peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic and carotid bodies detect decreases in O2 levels, but not strong stimulus for breathing
renal corpuscle
portion of the nephron where filtration occurs; consists of a glomerulus and glomerular capsule
define four respiratory volumes and state their average normal values
tidal volume, 500mL, amount of air that is inhaled and exhaled in a normal quiet breathing cycle, inspiratory reserve volume, 3100mL, max. air forcefully inhaled after tidal inspiration; expiratory reserve volume, 1200mL, max. forcefully exhaled after tidal expiration; residual volume, 1200 mL, amount of air still in lungs after max. expiration
peristalsis
shythmic contractions of the intestines that move food along the digestive tract
define four respiratory capacities and state their average normal values
vital capacity, 4800 mL, TV+IRV+ERV max. exhale after max. inhale; ispiratory capacity, 3600mL, TV+IRV; functional residual capacity, 2400mL, RV+ERV still in lungs after tidal exhale; total lung capacity, 6000mL air in lungs after max. inhale, RV+TV+IRV+ERV
acidosis
condition in which the blood has a lower pH than normal
describe the structure and histologic features of the stomach and its role in digestion
located in upper left quadrant of abdomen; average 1.5L capacity; fundus, cardia, body, and pyloric regions; lesser and greater curvatures on right and left sides; three layers of muscle; innermost: oblique, middle: circular, outermost: longitudinal; churning actions of the muscles in the stomach wall break the food particles into smaller sizes and mix w/ gastric juice: chyme
interstitial fluid
portion of the extracellular fluid that is found in the microscopic spaces between cells
chylomicrons
small fat droplets that are covered with a protein coat in the epithlial cells of the mucosa of the small intestine
plicae circulares
circular folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine
describe the structure and histologic features and functions of the large intestine
mucosa has many goblet cells but no villi, longitudinal muscle layer is incomplete; cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal; ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions; functions: absorption of water and electrolytes and elimination of feces
name and define three pressures involved in pulmonary ventilation and relate these pressure to the sequence of events that reults in inspiration and expiration
atmospheric pressure: air outside the body (760 mm Hg); intra-alveolar pressure: inside the alveoli of the lungs (decreased pressure allows inspiration, = to atmospheric b/t breaths, increase for expiration); intrapleural pressure: within the pleural cavity (represents partial vacuum or negative pressure, important factor in keeping lungs inflated)
describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood
approx. 3% of O2 is transported as a dissolved gas in the plasma; 97% carried by hemoglobin; 7% of CO2 dissolved in plasma; 23% combined with hemoglobin; 70% in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
describe the general histology of the four layers, or tunics in the digestive tract wall
mucosa: lining of digestive tract, epithelium, loose connective tissue and smooth muscle; submucosa: loose connective tissue with blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves; muscular layer: two layers of smooth muscle; Serous layer (serosa): called adventitia if above the diaphragm--connective tissue, below has a layer of epithelium covering the connective tissue
list the components of the digestive tract and the accessory organs
mouth, tongue, teeth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
accessory: salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
respiratory membrane
surfaces in the lungs where diffusion occurs; consists of the layers that the gases must pass through to get into or out of the alveoli
describe the structure and histologic features of the small intestine and its role in digestion and absorption
divided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; absorptive surface area increased by plicae cirulares, villi, and microvilli; wall has a mucosa w/simple columnar epithelium, submucosa, smooth muscle w/inner circular and outer longitudinal layers, and serosa; final stages of chemical digestion
describe the features and functions of the oral cavity, teeth, pharynx, and esophagus
tongue manipulates food, 32 adult teeth used to chew food; pharynx is channel for air and food, connects oral cavity to larynx and esophagus, esophagus is passageway for food located posterior to the trachea
describe the role of higher brain centers in regulating breathing
may override the respiratory center temporarily, voluntary or involuntary, voluntary is limited, involuntary may stimulate rapid breathing in response to anxiety or excitement