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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
List each level in the hierarchy of organization.
Organ Systems
Biological Community
What 3 generalizations constitute cell theory?
1. All living things are composed of one or more cells
2. The cell is the smallest entity that still retains the properties of life.
3. New cells arise only from cells that already exist.
Describe the concept of emergent properties.
An organism is greater than the sum of its parts.

EG Hammer head without a hammer handle is basically useless
What is the term used for reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study?
This is a powerful strategy used in biology
Natural Selection
Organisms with favorable traits to the environment will have an increased chance of survival and reproduction.
Who is the english scientist was the first to describe and name cells?
Robert Hooke (1665)
Looked at a cork to determine one of the most significant discoveries
Origin of Species
Descent with modification.
What are the 2 major kinds of cells, and what sizes are they?
1. Prokaryotic-very small <1 micro meter in diameter
2. Eukaryotic-10-100 micrometers in diameter
What do all living things have in common?
1. Order (structure)
2. Reproduction
3. Growth and Development: DNA
4. Energy Utilization: transforms energy to do work
5. Response to the environment
6. Homeostasis - Bio internal regulatory mechanism
7. Evolutionary Adaptation: due to interaction with environment
There are 7 properties of life.
What are the 2 main differences between a Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell?
A Eukaryotic cell has membrane bound organelles
In particular its DNA is contained in a nucleus
This is the entire library of genetic instructions that an organism inherits.
Define a Genome
Describe the alphabet of inheritance
The 4 chemical letters (nucleotides A,T/U,C,G)
Words are 100's to 1000's letters long
Genome is 3 billion chemical letters long
Who coined the term "cell"; after looking at a cork through a microscope?
Robert Hooke
Who saw small animacules through a compound microscope?
Who are the 2 inventors of cell theory?
Schleinden and Schwann
An entity that exchanges materials and energy with its surroundings is said to have an ___ ___.
Open System

Exchanges energy from one form to another
Define Heat
The unordered energy of random molecular motion
Define Homeostasis
Regulatory mechanisms that determine precisely when, where, and how fast certain reactions occur in a cell

EG Negative feedback = stop
Positive feedback = go
List the 3 domains of life
1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya
List the nutrition modes for these 3 kingdoms:
These 3 things briefly categorize what 3 kingdoms?
1. Autotroph
2. Heterotroph
3. Decomposer
What process accounts for the combination of unity and diversity in life?
What 2 main things does this account for in life?
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
"Descent with Modification"
He studied how the diversity of life came to be.

"Natural Selection"
2 key phases associated with Darwin
Descent with Modification
Genetic change over time (generations) in a population of species.
Genetic change over generations in a population of organisms.
This is an editing process, with heritable variations exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individual over others.
Natural Selection
Adaptation is a product of ____ ____.
Natural Selection
Features shared by 2 species are due to their _____ and differences between the species are due to ______ ______.
1. Descent
2. Natural Selection
Complete the sentence
The process of science blends these 2 main types of exploration.
1. Discovery Science (Descriptive Science) eg Sequencing the human genome
2. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
Name the 2 types of logic
1. Inductive reasoning - discovery science
2. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning - hypothetico-deductive science
What is a generalization that summarizes many concurrent observations?
Inductive Reasoning

EG All organisms are made of cells
Another word for Hypothetico-Deductive Science is __________
The Scientific Method
Another word for The Science Method is __________
Hypothetico-Deductive Science
Define a hypothesis in laymans terms
An educated guess that is testable and repeatable
This type of reasoning is from specific observations to a general conclusion.
Inductive Reasoning

EG All organisms are made of cells
This type of reasoning is from general observations to a specific conclusion
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning

EG If..Then prediction
This is about what outcomes of experiments or observations we expect if a particular hypothesis is correct.
Hypothesis to Prediction
If to Then
Cause to Effect
Independent to Dependent
x-axis to y-axis
What is the biological reproductive barrier?

RE: Speciation
What type of variable is measured, counted or observed in response to the experimental condition?
Dependent Variable
3 Types of variables are:
1. Controlled Variable
2. Dependent Variable
3. Independent Variable
What type of variable is manipulated?
Independent Variable
3 Types of variables are:
1. Controlled Variable
2. Dependent Variable
3. Independent Variable
What type of variable would have significant effects on the outcome of the experiment if it wasn't kept constant?
Controlled Variable
3 Types of variables are:
1. Controlled Variable
2. Dependent Variable
3. Independent Variable
It is impossible to define all the controlled variables
AKA Controlled Variable
AKA Alternative Independent Variable
List the 6 steps of the scientific method
1. Questions - based on observation
2. Background research - has the qu. already been answerered
3. Hypothesis - general stmt EG Diet affects cardiovascular fitness
4. Prediction - defines the experiment
5. Do Experiment
6. Conclusions
What are the 2 types of experiments?
1. Retrospective - relys on information through such things as surveys
2. Prospective - testing takes place during the study
What is the term used for describing the method to be performed for the experiment?
Experimental Procedure
What is known as the value set for the independent variable?
Level of Treatment
What is known as the number of times the same procedure will be repeated?
What is tested when independent variable being set to an established level or completely omitted?
Control Group
This tests what happens if the hypothesis is not supported
List the 3 variables that must be identified in designing an experiment.
1. Independent Variable(s)
2. Dependent Variable
3. Controlled Variable(s)
When is it best to use a line graph?
This type of graph is used to present continuous data.

It emphasizes the rise and fall of values over a range.
The types of graphs are:
1. Bar Graph
2. Line Graph
When is it best to use a bar graph?

AKA Histograms
This graph is used to illustrate date that represents:
1. Separate groups
2. Discontinuous groups
3. Non-numerical categories
The types of graphs are:
1. Bar Graph
2. Line Graph
What term describes the different properties that elements have when they come together?
Emergent Properties
What are the groups in an experiment?
1. Experimental Group
2. Control Group
What is supported by an accumulation of extensive and varied evidence?
A Theory

EG Natural Selection is a scientific theory
What does the term "science" mean in Latin?
To know