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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is slash and burn agriculture?
people would burn off trees in an area, farm it intensively for a few years until soil was depleted and then move on.
what encouraged people to form villages?
need for irrigation and defense
where were irrigation devices needed?
meddle east, china, parts of africa and india.
when did civilization originate in the middle eastern region?
3500 bce
what were the first five civilizations and their dates of existance?
1. m.e. between tigris and euphrates rivers, about 3500 bce.
2. egypt
3..india, banks of indus river around 2500 bce
4. china
5. central america
define civilization.
societies with enough surplus to form divisions of labor and a social hierarchy involving significant inequalities.
what is a chief difference between civilizations and other societies?
emergence of formal politicl states (orgs) rather than dependence on family or tribal ties.
why are large cities crucial to civilizations?
they amass wealth and power, allow rapic exchange of ideas among large numbers of people.they promote specialization in manufacturing and trade.
what was the first human writing?
cuneiform in the middle east around 3500 bce.
why is ability to write important to civilizations?
1. organize more elaborate poolitical structures.
2.ability to sent messages and keep records
3. can tax more efficiently
4. generate a more explicit intellectual climate.
5. build on past written wisdom.
who and why does history of civilizations does not include?
nomads and hunters because they didn't have the stabulity and resources to generate a civilization.
what are some characteristics of civilizations?
firmer class or caste divisions(including slavery)
promote greater separating between rulers and ruled
frequently are quite warlike
greater inequality between men and women
why did nomadic people play vital roles in workd trade and developing contacts?
because they traveled so much