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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Scientific Method
An approach to knowledge that relies on collecting data, generating a theory to explain the data, producing testable hypothese based on the theory, and testing those hypotheses empirically
Systematic explanation of a phenomenon; it organizes known facts, allows us to predict new facts, and permits us to exercise a degres of control over the phenomenon.
Specific, testable predictions derived from a theory.
School of psychology that stressed the basic units of experience and the combinations in which they occur.
Functionalist Theory
theory of mental life and the behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses it perceptual abilities to function in its environment.
Psychodynamic Theories
Personality theories contending that behavior results from psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awarness.
School of psychology that studies only observable and measurable behavior.
Gestalt Psychology
school of psychology that studies how people perceive and experience object as whole patterns
Humanistic Psychology
school of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one's full human potential.
Cognitive Psychology
school of psychology devoted to the study of mental processes in the broadest sense
Evolutionary Psychology
an approach to, and subfield of, psychology that is concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental process, their adaptative value, and the purposes they continue to serve.
Positive Psychology
an emerging field of psychology that focuses on positive experiences, including subjective well being, self-determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
Feminist Theory
offer a wide variety of views on the social roles of women and men, the problems and rewards of those roles, and the prescriptions for changing them.
Empirical Evidence
information derived from systematic, objective observation
Naturalistic Observation
research mehtod involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather than in the laboratory.
Observer Bias
expectations of biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed.
Case Study
intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals
Survey Research
technique in which questionaires or interviews are administered to a select group of people.
Correlation research
techinique bases on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variaables.
Experimental Method
research technique in which an investigatior deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior.
Independent Variable
the variable that is manipulated
Dependent Variable
the variable that is measured to see how it is changed by manipulations.
Experimental Group
in a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable.
Control Group
in a controlled experiment, the group not subject to a change in the independent variable; used for comparison with the experimental groups
Experimenter Bias
expectations by the experimenter that might influence the result of an experiment of its interpretation
selection of cases from a larder population
Random sample
sample in which each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected
Representative Sample
sample carefully chosen so that the characteristics of the participants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population